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(CM-5: dp. 5,875; 1. 454'10"; b. 60'2"; dr. 19'7", s. 20.3 k.; cpl. 481; a. 4 5", 16 1.1", 14 20mm.; cl.Terror)
Terror (CM-5) was laid down on 3 September 1940 by the Philadelphia Navy Yard, launched on 6 June 1941; sponsored by Mrs. Ralph A. Bard; and commissioned on 15 July 1942, Comdr. Howard Wesley Fitch in command.
Following fitting out and shakedown, Terror-the Navy's only minelayer built specifically for minelaying —arrived at New York on 30 October 1942 to prepare for her first large-scale operation. With Task Group 38.3, the new minelayer sortied the harbor on 2 November and set her course for North Africa. Rain squalls strong winds, and heavy seas forced the convoy to alter its course, but its goal remained the same-the support and reinforcement of Operation "Torch."
At dawn on 14 November, Terror parted company with the convoy and, escorted by a single destroyer, made her way at 20 knots to the newly taken port of Casablanca. Sunken ships added to the congestion of the harbor as Terror fueled Miantonomah (CM-10) and supplied that vessel with mines. Terror then prepared for her primary mission at Casablanca and the task for which she had been designed, minelaying. Her sortie was delayed on the morning of the 16th due to continued congestion in the harbor. Later, as Terror's crew made ready to get underway, they discovered that a large, "old fashioned" anchor with a heavy chain was fouling the ship's starboard anchor chain. After correcting this problem, Terror got underway in company with two minesweepers and, in short order, began laying the minefield which would protect the ships in the harbor. When completed, shortly before dark the same day, the minefield provided Allied shipping a protected channel entrance to Casablanca, stretching seven miles out from El Hank Light, a formidable barrier for any marauding enemy submarine to penetrate. Steaming at 16 knots, Terror made her way back to the port just as night fell.
On the following day, despite the obstacles imposed by rudimentary receiving facilities on shore and an extreme shortage of lighters, Terror unloaded her cargo of depth charges and ammunition, using a salvaged tank lighter and several wooden barges. Having accomplished her mission, Terror departed Casablanca and rendezvoused with a convoy bound for the east coast of the United States. Strong head winds, heavy seas, and the slowness of the convoy made it difficult for Terror to keep her station. Off the Virginia Capes, Terror was detached from the convoy and made for the Naval Mine Depot, Yorktown. She arrived on 30 November to commence overhaul and training.
In the months that followed, Terror operated out of Yorktown, making frequent voyages to the Chesapeake Bay for exercises and occasionally stopping at Norfolk for repairs or overhaul. Often students from the Mine
Warfare Training Facility came on board for instruction tours. Meanwhile, members of Terror's crew, when not attending classes ashore, participated in drills, training, and exercises in gunnery, mine warfare, and damage control. In February, the minelayer assisted Nuthatch (AM-60) as that vessel tested the Mark 10 "hedgehog" off Yorktown. After receiving additional antiaircraft guns in May, Terror participated in tactical exercises in the Chesapeake Bay through the summer.
Late in September, she began loading mines in preparation for her departure from the Atlantic coast. At Norfolk, she rendezvoused with Task Unit 29.2.6; and, on 2 October, she got underway for the Canal Zone and Pacific ports. On the morning of 19 October, she passed under the Golden Gate Bridge and anchored in San Francisco Bay. The next day, she departed the west coast and steamed via Pearl Harbor to the Ellice Islands.
She arrived at Funafuti on 9 November, unloaded pontoon barges, and took on fresh water. During the nearly three weeks she remained at Funafuti, Terror supported the many small craft which surveyed and mined the approaches to the atoll, supplying them with provisions, water, repairs, and medical services. At the same time, she assisted in the conversion of a 1,500-ton covered lighter into a barracks for a construction battalion, sending skilled personnel to speed the work and providing water and mess facilities for the battalion until the task was completed. On the 17th, Terror's gunners fired on the enemy for the first time when Japanese planes bombed the runway on Funafuti. The Japanese raiders dropped 40 bombs near the airstrip causing a fire which burned for an hour. Another alert followed in the afternoon, but no further action occurred. Terror laid mooring buoys in the anchorage before getting underway for Hawaii on 28 November.
Early in December, she loaded mines and gear at Pearl Harbor; then set her course for Tarawa, where she provided heavy equipment and mines for mine details. At night, searchlights from shore combed the dark, spotting enemy planes in an attempt to foil the persistent Japanese raiders.
On Christmas day, Terror got underway. She delivered mines and heavy equipment to units at Espiritu Santo and Guadalcanal before arriving at Makin Island on 18 January 1944. The minelayer anchored in the lagoon while her boats surveyed the passes in the reef. She then readied a self-propelled barge to mine the channels. She departed Makin on the 28th and proceeded independently to Tarawa where she embarked Mine Detail 19. On the last day of January, she got underway for Pearl Harbor and took on passengers for transportation to San Francisco. After a three-day stay, she departed the west coast on 21 February with over 500 passengers on board, accommodated on a temporary wooden deck constructed over the tracks on the mine deck. She discharged her passengers at Pearl Harbor on the 26th; then steamed on to Majuro, where she arrived on 10 March.
During the rest of March and into April, she conducted minelaying operations in the Marshalls before getting underway for the Hawaiian Islands on 22 April. There, she underwent repairs, loaded mines, and participated in gunnery exercises before departing on 24 May. In the following months, she carried ammunition, mines, and bombs to the Marshalls and Marianas, returning once to Pearl Harbor to load ammunition. On 17 August, she departed Oahu-this time setting her course for the west coast. Terror arrived at San Francisco on the 24th for drydocking and overhaul. On 9 September, she got underway carrying a cargo of ammunition. After loading mines and minesweeping gear at Pearl Harbor, she steamed to Ulithi where she began defensive mining operations.
On 16 October, Terror was transferred from ServRon 6 to Minecraft Pacific Fleet. During October and November, she carried cargos to the Marianas, Carolines, and Admiralties. On 25 November, she entered the Navy Yard at Pearl Harbor for repairs and alterations to accommodate the staff of Commander, Minecraft Pacific Fleet. On 6 January 1945, Terror assumed duty as the flagship of Rear Admiral Alexander Sharp.
For two weeks, Terror conducted exercises out of Pearl Harbor. Then, on 22 January, she got underway and proceeded via Eniwetok to the Carolines. At Ulithi, Terror supplied mines and gear to minecraft preparing for the invasion of Iwo Jima. She then steamed on to Tinian to act as tender for minecraft in that second staging area. On 13 February, she departed the Marianas setting her course for the Volcano Islands.
At 0717 on 17 February, Terror arrived in the fire support area off the east coast of Iwo Jima. Pre-assault bombardment and minesweeping were well underway when fire from guns on the cliff-lined shore began to interfere with minesweepers operating close inshore, north of the eastern beaches. Terror closed the shore to 10,000 yards and, for 20 minutes, added her five-inch gunfire to the bombardment in an attempt to aid the small craft. Nevertheless, the formidable barrage put out by the enemy began to take its toll as first Pensacola (CA-24) and then Leutze (DD-481) suffered hits. Shortly after noon, damaged landing craft began coming alongside the tender for assistance. Terror acted as a casualty evacuation vessel for minesweepers and small craft acting in support of underwater demolition teams. Soon her medical facilities were severely taxed. One after another of these small craft came alongside to transfer their wounded and to receive assistance in repairing their vessels. Terror continued her duties off Iwo Jima until 1835 on 19 February when she headed for the Marianas.
On 21 February, she transferred battle casualties to an Army hospital at Saipan; then steamed to Ulithi, where she arrived on the 23d. At that base, she serviced and supplied minecraft staging for the assault on Okinawa. She arrived off Kerama Retto on 24 March to act as flagship and tender for minecraft. Terror operated off Kerama Retto until the morning of the 29th when she anchored in that island's harbor. There, despite the constant danger of kamikaze attacks, she performed her dual role as tender and flagship. Her entire complement labored long hours to maintain the supply of water, oil, gear, and ammunition required by minecraft in the area. At the same time, her resources were further strained by the duties imposed by her status as flagship.
On the morning of 2 April 1945, Japanese planes penetrated the harbor. Terror took two of the attackers under fire and witnessed the splashing of one plane only 600 yards away. In the following days, Terror— responding to warnings to be prepared for attacks by Japanese planes, swimmers, and suicide boats-stationed special night sentries on deck and in a picket boat to intercept any ingenious attackers. Predicted mass air attacks materialized on 6 April when Japanese manes pounded the harbor at Kerama Retto for four hours, coming in on Terror from all quarters and keeping her gunners busy. The tender joined other ships in downing two Japanese planes and furnished rescue boats, clothing, and treatment for the survivors of LST-447 and SS Logan Victory.
Throughout April, Terror remained at Kerama Retto providing logistic services and receiving casualties from ships hit by kamikazes. Combat air patrols kept raiders outside the harbor most of the time; but, on 28 April, Pinckne~g ( APH-2)—anchored nearby-was hit by a suicide plane. Terror fired on the enemy aircraft, sent boats to Pinckney's aid, and treated many casualties. During the long and arduous month of April, Terror's crew went to general quarters 93 times, for periods ranging from seven minutes to six and one-half hours.
Minutes before 0400 on 1 May 1945, as Terror lay at anchor in Kerama Retto, a kamikaze dove toward the ship. Darting through a hole in the smoke screen and coming in on Terror's port beam, the attacker banked sharply around the stern, then came in from the starboard quarter so rapidly that only one of the minelayer's stern guns opened fire. As the plane crashed into the ship's communication platform, one of its bombs exploded. The other penetrated the main deck before it, too, exploded. The aircraft's engine tore through the ship's bulkheads to land in the wardroom. Fire flared immediately in the superstructure but was soon controlled and, within two hours, was extinguished. Flooding of the magazines prevented possible explosions, and no engineering damage occurred, but the kamikaze had exacted its toll. The attack cost Terror 171 casualties: 41 dead, 7 missing, and 123 wounded.
The following day, the battered ship was moored to Natrona (APA-214) for emergency repairs. She got underway on the 8th to rendezvous with a convoy bound for Saipan. Since a survey of the vessel revealed that her damage was too great to be repaired in a forward area, Terror steamed via Eniwetok and Pearl Harbor to the west coast. She reached San Francisco on 1 June 1945, unloaded ammunition, and then began her overhaul.
Her repairs completed, she departed San Francisco Bay on 15 August and steamed for Korea via the Hawaiian Islands, Saipan, and Okinawa. Moored in Buckner Bay on 16 September, she weathered a furious typhoon. Pounding against Patoka (AO-9) put a few holes in Terror's side, but she was soon repaired. On 9 October, while still at Okinawa, she emerged undamaged from another typhoon which beached or wrecked over 100 vessels at Buckner Bay and Unten Ko.
In December, Panamint (AGC-13) replaced Terror as flagship for Minecraft Pacific Fleet, and the veteran of many Pacific campaigns again crossed the Pacific to arrive at San Francisco in February. She made one voyage to Pearl Harbor in March, then returned to the west coast. Terror remained there until February 1947 when she departed San Francisco and steamed through the Panama Canal to embark the Commander, Minecraft Atlantic Fleet at San Juan late in February. Following exercises in the Caribbean, she operated out of east coast ports until July 1947 when she arrived at the Charleston Navy Yard for inactivation. During the Korean War, she was placed in service in reserve; and on 7 February 1955, she was redesignated a fleet minelayer (MM-5). Her designation symbol was changed to MMF-5 in October 1955, and she was decommissioned on 6 August 1956. In 1971, her hulk was sold to the Union Minerals and Alloys Corporation, of New York City.
Terror received four battle stars for World War II service.
Today in History: Born on June 21
William Sydney Smith, British seaman during the Napoleonic Wars.
Henry Ossawa Tanner, African-American painter.
Arnold Lucius Gesell, psychologist and pediatrician.
Rockwell Kent, artist, book illustrator.
Reinhold Niebuhr, Protestant theologian.
Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher and existentialist.
Albert Hirschfeld, illustrator.
Mary McCarthy, American novelist (Memories of Catholic Girlhood, The Group).
Carl Stokes, the first black mayor of Cleveland, Ohio.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
What is “terrorism”?
Definition of terrorism: There does not currently exist a single, universally-accepted definition of “terrorism”.
Under U.S. law 18 U.S. Code § 2331, “terrorism” (whether foreign or domestic) includes any acts that are dangerous to human life in violation of the law and are intended to intimidate or coerce a population, influence governmental policy, or affect the conduct of a government. Similarly, under 22 U.S. Code § 2656f, “terrorism” is “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.”
The original Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) defines a certified act of terrorism for the purposes of that Act to be
a violent act or an act that is dangerous to (I) human life (II) property or (III) infrastructure (iii) to have resulted in damage within the United States, or outside of the United States in the case of-- (I) an air carrier or vessel described in paragraph (5)(B) or (II) the premises of a United States mission and (iv) to have been committed by an individual or individuals acting on behalf of any foreign person or foreign interest, as part of an effort to coerce the civilian population of the United States or to influence the policy or affect the conduct of the United States Government by coercion.
The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2015 (TRIPRA) adopted the 2007 program reauthorization definition, which struck “acting on behalf of any foreign person or foreign interest” in order to include domestic terrorism under certified actions of terrorism.
Acts of war: The TRIPRA definition of acts of terrorism excludes acts of war. Both personal and commercial insurance policies exclude coverage for losses or damages caused by or arising out of war or “warlike actions,” including insurrections and rebellions. War is usually considered an uninsurable catastrophic risk (though some insurers do offer war insurance) and is not covered by terrorism insurance. The only line of insurance that covers injury or death from an act of war is workers compensation.
Terrorism in the United States: According to National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), there were 1,922 successful acts of terrorism on U.S. soil between 1970 and 2016. 2 Most occurred during the 1970s during a period of widespread politically-motivated violence, particularly bombings.
The September 11, 2001 terror attack, in which terrorists hijacked commercial airliners and flew them into the World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon, remains the deadliest and most expensive terrorist attack in U.S. history. Insurance losses stemming from the 9/11 attacks totaled about $47 billion in 2019 dollars, including commercial liability and group life insurance claims. 3 About two thirds of these losses were paid for by reinsurers, companies that provide insurance for insurers. Thirty-three percent of losses were for business interruption 30 percent were for property losses, including the WTC towers.
9/11 remains one of the largest single insured loss events in history.
King Edward III
King of England from January 1327, Edward III was famous for his victories in the Hundred Years War, but would also face many challenges after inheriting a chaotic and disorderly mantle from his recently deposed father, Edward II.
His father had not only suffered a humiliating defeat by the Scots at Bannockburn but his close personal relationships with “favourites” such as Piers Gaveston made him a source of much scrutiny.
In the end his personal relationships would prove the death of him, with his wife, Isabella of France arranging with her lover, Roger Mortimer, to have him deposed. His imprisonment and death at Berkley Castle marked the beginning of Edward III’s ascension to power.
With his mother Isabella having arranged for the deposition of his father, Edward was proclaimed king and on 1st February 1327, at the tender age of fourteen, was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
Unfortunately for young Edward, his ascendancy to throne merely provided Mortimer with more power in court, as the de facto ruler of the kingdom.
Isabella’s lover Roger Mortimer was now abusing his power in order to increase his lands and titles, leading to a surge in his unpopularity. At this time, Edward was a nonentity in a much bigger game of power politics having rid himself of Edward II, Mortimer was now the one calling the shots.
Mortimer’s greediness continued as did the downward spiral of his popularity, particularly after the Battle of Stanhope Park in County Durham in which the Scots achieved a major victory. The demoralising defeat led in 1328 to the agreement known as the Treaty of Northampton, essentially guaranteeing Scottish independence.
Whilst Edward had no choice but to agree, he would bide his time and at a later date revoke his support for the arrangement.
Meanwhile, the young king became increasingly frustrated with his guardian who showed him a distinct lack of regard. The hostility would continue to grow when Edward married Philippa of Hainault in January 1328 at York Minster. The marriage and the subsequent child that followed, Edward of Woodstock in 1330, signified more challenges to Mortimer’s power.
Eventually, sensing the time had come, Edward took clear and decisive action against Mortimer.
Mortimer is seized
In the same year as his first son’s birth and with the help of close aide William Montagu, Edward launched a surprise attack on Mortimer at Nottingham Castle in October 1330. Mortimer was subsequently tried for treason and executed, leaving aside the more delicate matter of his mother’s fate.
Isabella found herself treated with more leniency, spending the rest of her life in Norfolk, having lost the prestige to which she had become accustomed. Mortimer’s death thus marked the beginning of Edward’s real ascension to power.
Edward faced two main tests during his reign: firstly, his approach to the prospect of war, namely with Scotland and France and secondly, Edward’s approach to reconciling relationships with those leading and titled figures whom his father had so greatly alienated.
In 1329, the death of Robert the Bruce and the accession of David II who was only 5 years old at the time, allowed Edward an ideal opportunity to renege on the Treaty of Northampton.
By 1332, Edward enacted his ambitions in Scotland by supporting the installation of Edward Balliol as King of Scotland, usurping David II. Balliol had the support of a group of English magnates, known as the” Disinherited”, a name which alluded to their loss of land.
The group managed to secure a victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor where they sought to place Edward Balliol as the king. However, this was a move which initiated serious opposition, leading to Balliol’s expulsion and the need for Edward III to step in as King of England.
Edward’s involvement was motivated by a desire to re-install the over-lordship of Scotland, previously established by Edward I. Thus, in support of Balliol, Edward instigated important military campaigns at Berwick, launching a devastating blow to enemy forces at the Battle of Haildon Hill.
At this moment, Edward was able to oversee Balliol’s tightening grip of Scotland which saw him force the young David II who was now nine years of age to flee for his life to France. Meanwhile, Balliol gained the lands of southern Scotland. Balliol however was never able to execute real and sustained power over Scotland and in very little time his weak control was ceded and by 1338 Edward was forced to recognise and conclude a truce with the Scots.
The dynastic challenges of Scotland proved in the long run to occupy Edward’s attention, however for now he turned his head towards France.
The conflict brewing between England and France was born out of a much longer and simmering tension, arguably from as far back as the Norman Conquest. In the reign of Edward III, the conflict gained more prominence in light of the ascendancy challenges which emerged from the death of Charles IV of France who passed away without any children.
Edward III of England was Charles IV’s nephew and therefore had a legitimate claim to the throne, however it was subsequently rejected by the French parliament who instead chose Philippe VI, Charles’s cousin as the new face of France.
To add more fuel to the fire, continued French resistance to the presence of the Plantagenets in Gascony was growing.
When sparks really began to fly however was when in 1334, Philippe chose to offer support to David II of Scotland and two years later began making military preparations for an invasion of England.
Edward was not one to back down and over the coming year made clear his intentions for claiming the French throne. In due course, a series of Anglo-French hostilities erupted and formed part of a much larger chain of events known later as the Hundred Years War.
With Philippe staking his claim to Gascony, skirmishes broke out an invasion by the French did not produce a clear outcome and by March 1340 Edward had declared himself King of France, even choosing to add the fleur-de-lys to his coat of arms.
It was at this time that he dealt with the other pressing concern of his reign, healing the divisions caused by his father and uniting the barons in his favour.
Such a task was accomplished in the midst of war with France as Edward could not afford to alienate his men back home. By referring to a parliament which acted as a genuine consultative institution, giving powers to revoke or agree, the barons were swept up by shared interests.
Edward needed money to fund his continued military escapades abroad and therefore an increase in taxation was necessary – only with the permission of the parliament of course.
Moreover, he also founded the Most Notable Order of the Garter which brought together his court in a union inspired by Arthurian chivalric attitudes. From its inception, the group consisted of twenty six members including Edward III and his son who met at the chapel in Windsor Castle, cementing their chivalric dedications.
Back on the battlefield, in June 1340 fighting at Sluys resulted in a huge number of deaths, with almost 20,000 French soldiers and sailors losing their life.
Such animosity only led to fleeting truces, with one being made in 1343 and subsequently broken by Edward when he launched a successful invasion of France in 1346. Such actions allowed Edward to spread his tentacles into France, enacting a glorious defeat against his enemies at Crécy where intense hand-to-hand combat allowed the English to overwhelm the French, move on and lay siege to Calais, which they continued to hold for a further two centuries.
Edward’s son, The Black Prince at Crécy
In the meantime, back in Scotland, David II had returned, only to be captured by an army led by the Archbishop of York, Walter de la Zouche.
With David II imprisoned, fighting looked set to continue however a much more unpredictable and fierce threat to life was emerging: the outbreak of the Black Death.
The plague first made its appearance in France around 1348 and in very little time decimated a significant proportion of Europe’s fighting population. Understandably, a truce was enacted with fighting unable to continue in light of the pandemic. Now the threat to life came in the form of illness with England and France experiencing significant losses of life.
The social impact as well as political could not be underestimated. With a reduced working population, those that survived were now inclined to demand higher wages, an event which Edward sought to suppress with the introduction of the Statute of Labour in 1351.
Edward however was not exempt from the horrific impact of the Black Death as he experienced a personal loss from the plague, that of his daughter, Joan who died. A reminder for the king, “that we are human too”.
Whilst the plague ravaged Europe and would continue to impact the population in the coming decades, within six years war was resumed with both Scotland and France.
By 1355, Edward’s son known as the Black Prince was rampaging his way through France and in the following year, would experience great victory at Poitiers after capturing the new king of France, Jean II.
This meant that at one stage two kings, Jean II and David II were under the enforced imprisonment of Edward III. Quite a military victory however could not be sustained by Edward, who had to deal with the increasing financial burden of such warfare.
The fortunes of Edward III would continue to fluctuate with a new agreement emerging in 1360, forcing him to withdraw his claim to the throne whilst securing his sovereignty of Gascony.
Whilst his military fortunes were dwindling, domestic issues resurfaced when the court found itself divided. The so-called Good Parliament of 1376 attempted to deal with the problems by removing Edward’s power-wielding mistress, Alice Perrers, although the real power was being seized by John Gaunt.
Meanwhile, Edward III continued to distance himself from the daily strife of court. For the remainder of his life, England was locked in a battle with France. By the time of his own demise in 1377, all that was left for Edward was Calais and a small part of Gascony. The heyday of the Plantagenets was over.
Jessica Brain is a freelance writer specialising in history. Based in Kent and a lover of all things historical.
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Over the last two decades, there have been many events that are considered acts of terrorism (officially or not), or potential acts of terrorism. Here are some of the more notable instances:
1978-1995 — The Unabomber
Ted Kaczynski, a recluse ideologically opposed to technological progress, sends 16 bombs through the mail over the course of two decades.
1993 — The First World Trade Center Bombing
Ramzi Yousef, a member of al Qaeda and nephew of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, loaded a truck bomb into the parking garage below Tower 1 of the World Trade Center. He intended for the bomb to bring down the building. It didn't, but it killed six people and injured 1,042. He later wrote to the New York Times, "This action was done in response for the American political, economical, and military support to Israel, the state of terrorism, and to the rest of the dictator countries in the region."
1995 — Oklahoma City Bombing
Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols killed 168 and injured more than 600 people when he exploded a car bomb in the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. McVeigh wanted revenge over the way the government handled the Waco siege in 1993, and thought the destruction of one federal building could spark a revolution. He was sentenced to death.
1996 — Centennial Olympic Park Bombing
At the 1996 summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, Eric Robert Rudolph planted pipe bombs and shrapnel underneath benches in the main square of the Olympic grounds. Two people died 111 were injured. "Even though the conception and purpose of the so-called Olympic movement is to promote the values of global socialism," Rudolph said in his confession, "as perfectly expressed in the song Imagine by John Lennon, which was the theme of the 1996 Games even though the purpose of the Olympics is to promote these ideals, the purpose of the attack on July 27 was to confound, anger and embarrass the Washington government in the eyes of the world for its abominable sanctioning of abortion on demand."
The deadliest terrorist attack in U.S. history. Nearly 3000 people died.
2001 — The Shoe Bomber
Richard Reid, a British citizen with ties to Al Qaeda, attempted to blow up a plane with explosives implanted in his shoes. After trying to light a fuse to ignite the explosive, Reid was subdued by other passengers.
2001 — Anthrax Attacks
Biologist Bruce E. Ivins mailed letters laced with anthrax to several media organizations and senator's offices. Five people died and 17 others were infected by the lethal bacterium. According to the FBI,Ivins conducted the attacks to bring attention to an anthrax vaccine program he had worked on. While the attacks were conducted in 2001, Ivins wasn't identified as a suspect until 2008.
2002 — The Beltway Sniper
John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo terrorize the D.C.-beltway area, taking shots at people from the modified trunk of a Chevrolet Caprice sedan. Ten people were killed over the course of three weeks. Three others were injured.
2006 — SUV Attack at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Mohammed Reza Taheri-azar, wanting to "avenge the deaths of Muslims worldwide," intentionally hits nine people with an SUV at the University of North Carolina. None died.
2009 — NYC Subway Bomb Plot
Najibullah Zazi, an Afghan immigrant who claimed ties to al Qaeda, was arrested, charged, andadmitted to plotting to plant a bomb in the the New York City subway system. Zazi was constructing explosive materials similar to those used in the 2005 London subway attacks. Mayor Bloomberg characterized it as "a very serious plot against New York City."
2009 — Fort Hood Shooting
Nidal Malik Hasan, a 39-year-old Army psychiatrist, killed 13 and injured 30 in a shooting at an Army base in Fort Hood, Texas. While it was reported Hasan had correspondences with Anwar al-Awlaki — the American terrorist who would later be killed in a drone strike — the shooting has not been classified as a terrorist incident, but an act of workplace violence. As recently as February, Republican lawmakers have called on the administration to label it a terrorist attack.
2009 — Little Rock Recruiting Office Shooting
Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad, an American, killed one member of the U.S. military and wounded another in a drive-by shooting of a recruiting office in Little Rock, Arkansas. While he is not officially charged as a terrorist, he told police he was "mad at the U.S. military because of what they had done to Muslims in the past," and his "intent was to kill as many people in the Army as he could."
2009 — Underwear Bombing Attempt
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, a Nigerian with connections to al-Qaeda, attempted to detonate a bomb sewn into his underwear while on a flight to Detroit.
Profile on the Right: Three Percenters
The Three Percenters (aka 3%ers, III %ers, or “Threepers”) are a Patriot movement paramilitary group that pledges armed resistance against attempts to restrict private gun ownership. 1 Adherents and supporters have been associated with threats and acts of violence. Like other Patriot groups, they depict the federal government as tyrannical. Their name refers to the (disputed) percentage of American colonialists who took up arms against the British during the Revolutionary War.
The Three Percenters have a loosely defined membership and a decentralized organizational structure. Seemingly anyone can use the label. There are overlapping Three Percenter organizations, including local, state, and regional leadership structures that coordinate actions and decision-making.
The Three Percenters were co-founded in late 2008 by Mike Vanderboegh, who was active in 1990s Alabama militia groups. Vanderboegh has said, “The Three Percent idea, the movement, the ideal, was designed to be a simple, powerful concept that could not be infiltrated or subjected to agents provocateurs like many organizations that I observed in the constitutional militia movement of the 90s.” 2 Along with the Oath Keepers, the Three Percenters are part of a new wave of Patriot movement groups that are successors to the militia movement of the 1990s and have had a dramatic rebirth since the 2008 election of Barack Obama to the presidency. 3
Ideologically, the Three Percenters are similar to the better-known Oath Keepers, a Patriot movement group of current and former military, law enforcement, and first responders. The Oath Keepers claim to “defend the Constitution,” and interpret this as a commitment to right-wing social and economic views of the kind usually associated with the John Birch Society. The Oath Keepers promote conspiracy theories that claim that the United States is a socialist government intent on disarming the population so that a foreign government can invade. They are committed to a libertarian view of private property that opposes most federal land ownership or restrictions on private use for environmental or other reasons. 4
Where the Oath Keepers are a formally incorporated group with a board of directors and membership roll, the Three Percenters are more like a loosely organized social movement. The Oath Keepers carefully cultivate a public image of bold but legal resistance against supposed government tyranny. Consistent with their media-ready image, they claim that they can deny membership to felons. 5
Those with felony convictions are welcome in the Three Percenters, who work closely with the Oath Keepers. There appears to be substantial membership overlap and their most prominent members appear in public together for example, Vanderboegh and Oath Keepers President and Founder Stewart Rhodes both spoke at a 2015 Salem, Oregon rally against a law requiring registration of gun sales between private individuals. This arrangement with the Three Percenters may afford the Oath Keepers a measure of insulation from public scrutiny of actions by Three Percenters.
Three Percenter co-founder Vanderboegh is well known for his violent rhetoric. In 2010, he called for breaking the windows of Democratic Party offices, and a slew of such attacks followed. He called for armed resistance to Obamacare and has published personal information about the families of legislators who voted for gun control measures. 6 At the 2015 Salem, Oregon rally against state gun control legislation, he threatened “civil war” (as he did at the Bundy Ranch) as a response to the new laws. He also called Oregon Governor Kate Brown and others in the state government “tyrants” and “domestic enemies of the Constitution,” before saying, “this country has long had a remedy for tyrants—a second amendment remedy. So be careful for what you wish for, Madam—you may get it.” 7
The Three Percenters have shown up at almost all of the major Patriot movement standoffs and armed camps in recent years, including the Bundy Ranch confrontation with Bureau of Land Management ( BLM ) agents in Nevada in April 2014 a Josephine County, Oregon dispute between miners and the BLM in April 2015 and a Lincoln, Montana dispute between miners and the BLM and Forest Service in July 2015. In Idaho, they have mobilized religious hatred and xenophobic hostility, organizing public rallies against Syrian refugee resettlement. 8 The Idaho Three Percenters’ organizing has inspired similar actions in California. Supporters also tried to build a “citadel” in rural Benewah County in the Idaho panhandle. 9
Numerous arrests of Three Percenters and those who have shown affinity with them have been documented. Allen “Lance” Scarsella, who was arrested in connection with the shooting of five people at a Black Lives Matter demonstration in Minneapolis in November 2015, showed an affinity for the Three Percenters. 10 So did Jerad Miller, who was at the Bundy Ranch before he and his wife, Amanda, were involved in a June 2014 ambush of police officers and subsequent shootout that left five dead, including the Millers. 11 Three Percenter Brad Bartelt threatened to detonate a homemade explosive on Arkansas State University’s campus in December 2015 12 . Brandon D. Gibbs, who was heavily armed and armored when police arrested him in December 2014 for threatening a city official, also had shown an affinity for the Three Percenters. 13 And in 2011, Frederick Thomas was arrested in Georgia as a member of a militia group, which “planned to attack cities including Atlanta with deadly ricin, bomb federal buildings and murder law enforcement officials and others.” 14 Thomas was allegedly inspired by Vanderboegh’s online novel Absolved it describes a future confrontation where activists with Patriot movement views have a shootout with law enforcement and plan to murder government officials. 15
What is a Critical Asset?
A critical asset is an asset whose theft, diversion, loss, damage, disruption, or degradation would result in a significant adverse impact to human life, national security, or a critical economic asset. Assets include but are not limited to:
- Physical security infrastructure, activities, procedures, personnel, or measures that comprise all or part of the facility’s system for managing security risks.
- Physical safety infrastructure, activities, procedures, personnel, or measures for managing process safety and emergency response measures.
- Cyber systems involved in the management of processes, process safety, security, product or material stewardship, or business management and control.
- Vessels, process equipment, piping, transport vessels, or any container or equipment used in the processing or holding of chemicals.
- On-site and off-site response protocols.
- Warehouses, vaults, storage bays, and similar infrastructure.
- Specially trained, qualified personnel who are engaged in the management of security and safety risk.
Hugh Capet is generally considered the first king of France but it took him and his descendants to fight and expand, and fight and survive, to begin to turn a small kingdom into great France.
- 987–996 Hugh Capet
- 996–1031 Robert II (the Pious)
- 1031–1060 Henry I
- 1060–1108 Philip I
- 1108–1137 Louis VI (the Fat)
- 1137–1180 Louis VII (the Young)
- 1180–1223 Philip II Augustus
- 1223–1226 Louis VIII (the Lion)
- 1226–1270 Louis IX (St. Louis)
- 1270–1285 Philip III (the Bold)
- 1285–1314 Philip IV (the Fair)
- 1314–1316 Louis X (the Stubborn)
- 1316–John I
- 1316–1322 Philip V (the Tall)
- 1322–1328 Charles IV (the Fair)
3-Pope John XXIII (1410-1415)
The Bad Popes
There were several witnesses who saw and purported against him on the accompanying charges of fornication, adultery, incest, sodomy, simony, theft, and last but the greatest of all, murder. Many observers disclose to the painful truth that a large number of women were kept by him locked for his so called ‘pleasure’. Countless lives were lost amid the split authorized in endeavors to remove John XXIII, however fortunately with the relentless efforts of the general population he was finally deposed in only 5 years of start of his papacy.
Why is there tension between China and the Uighurs?
The largest of China's administrative regions, Xinjiang borders eight countries - Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India - and until recently its population was mostly Uighur.
Most Uighurs are Muslim and Islam is an important part of their life and identity. Their language is related to Turkish, and they regard themselves as culturally and ethnically close to Central Asian nations.
The region's economy has largely revolved around agriculture and trade, with towns such as Kashgar thriving as hubs along the famous Silk Road.
But development has brought new residents. In the 2000 census, Han Chinese made up 40% of the population, as well as large numbers of troops stationed in the region and unknown numbers of unregistered migrants.
Has Xinjiang always been part of China?
The region has had intermittent autonomy and occasional independence, but what is now known as Xinjiang came under Chinese rule in the 18th Century.
An East Turkestan state was briefly declared in 1949, but independence was short-lived - later that year Xinjiang officially became part of Communist China.
In the 1990s, open support for separatist groups increased after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of independent Muslim states in Central Asia.
However, Beijing suppressed demonstrations and activists went underground.
What is at the heart of the unrest?
While the situation is complex, many say that ethnic tensions caused by economic and cultural factors are the root cause of the recent violence..
Major development projects have brought prosperity to Xinjiang's big cities, attracting young and technically qualified Han Chinese from eastern provinces.
The Han Chinese are said to be given the best jobs and the majority do well economically, something that has fuelled resentment among Uighurs.
Activists say Uighur commercial and cultural activities have been gradually curtailed by the Chinese state. There are complaints of severe restrictions on Islam, with fewer mosques and strict control over religious schools.
Rights group Amnesty International, in a report published in 2013, said authorities criminalised "what they labelled 'illegal religious' and 'separatist' activities" and clamped down on "peaceful expressions of cultural identity".
In July 2014, some Xinjiang government departments banned Muslim civil servants from fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. It was not the first time China had restricted fasting in Xinjiang, but it followed a slew of attacks on the public attributed to Uighur extremists, prompting concerns the ban would increase tensions.
How has the violence developed?
China has been accused of intensifying its crackdown on the Uighurs after street protests in the 1990s and again in the run-up to the Beijing Olympics in 2008.
But things really escalated in 2009, with large-scale ethnic rioting in the regional capital, Urumqi. Some 200 people were killed in the unrest, most of them Han Chinese, according to officials.
Security was increased and many Uighurs detained as suspects. But violence rumbled on as right groups increasingly pointed to tight control by Beijing.
In June 2012, six Uighurs reportedly tried to hijack a plane from Hotan to Urumqi before they were overpowered by passengers and crew.
There was bloodshed in April 2013 and in June that year, 27 people died in Shanshan county after police opened fire on what state media described as a mob armed with knives attacking local government buildings
Establishing facts about these incidents is difficult, because foreign journalists' access to the region is tightly controlled, but in recent months, there appears to have been a shift towards larger-scale incidents where citizens have become the target, particularly in Xinjiang.
At least 31 people were killed and more than 90 suffered injuries in May 2014 when two cars crashed through an Urumqi market and explosives were tossed into the crowd. China called it a "violent terrorist incident".
It followed a bomb and knife attack at Urumqi's south railway station in April, which killed three and injured 79 others.
In July, authorities said a knife-wielding gang attacked a police station and government offices in Yarkant, leaving 96 dead. The imam of China's largest mosque, Jume Tahir, was stabbed to death days later.
In September about 50 died in blasts in Luntai county outside police stations, a market and a shop. Details of both incidents are unclear and activists have contested some accounts of incidents in state media.
Some violence has also spilled out of Xinjiang. A March stabbing spree in Kunming in Yunnan province that killed 29 people was blamed on Xinjiang separatists, as was an October 2013 incident where a car ploughed into a crowd and burst into flames in Beijing's Tiananmen Square.
In response to the latest slew of attacks, the authorities have launched what they call a "year-long campaign against terrorism", stepping up security in Xinjiang and conducting more military drills in the region.
There have also been reports of mass sentencings and arrests of several "terror groups". Chinese state media have reported long lists of people convicted of extremist activity and in some cases, death sentences.