Boxer Fresco, Delos

Boxer Fresco, Delos

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Part of the mosaic from the House of Dionysus. The god appears with outstretched wings, riding a tiger that wears a necklace of vines and grapes around its neck.


Two Kouros statues, work of Naxians.

Kouroi from the Sanctuary of Apollo.

The remaining lions are protected from further erosion inside the museum. They have been replaced by cast replicas on the approximate original location outdoors.

From the corner acroterion of the temple of the Athenians

From the NW corner of the Agora of the Italians.

Female mantle statue in the Herculaneum woman type made popular by Praxiteles.

From the Agora of Theophrastus.

Statues from the east pediment apex of the Temple of the Athenians. It depicts Boreas, the Thracian King who personified the northern wind, abducts Oreithyia.

Ancient Boxing in Art

Humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat to the death since living in caves, but the earliest recorded evidence of fist-fighting competitions, according to Encyclopedia Britannica, was found on “Ancient Sumerian reliefs discovered in modern-day Iraq which were created in the 3rd millennium BC in the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, and in Hittite art from Asia Minor.”

In 1350 BC, a relief sculpture made in Thebes, modern Egypt, depicts two boxers among spectators and both this and the Middle-Eastern depictions show ‘bare-fisted’ fighters, or ancient boxers sometimes wearing a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with gloves was found on Minoan Crete and dates to between 1500 -1400 BC. The first formalized boxing rules appeared at the 23rd Olympiad of 688 BC.

One of the earliest depictions of boxing gloves showing a pair of Minoan youths fighting. Akrotiri fresco circa 1500 BC. ( Public Domain )

Boxer Fresco, Delos - History

Short History of the Boxer Breed
By: Judy Voran

Earliest Ancestors
John Wagner's Book, The Boxer, first published in 1939, contains one of the most detailed histories of development of this breed. Therefore, much of the Boxer history that is developed here comes from his book.

The history of the Boxer as a unique breed begins late in the last century in the area of Munich, Germany. The Germans did not begin to breed dogs seriously and scientifically until that time, although various types of dogs had existed in Germany -- as in England and the Continent -- from time immemorial. According to Denlinger, "As far back as the time of the ancient Assyrians, more than 2000 B.C., a strain of dogs with powerful build, heavy head and great courage was bred and used in war. Centuries later the name of Molossian was given to dogs of this type, named from the city of Molossis in Epirus, in what is today Albania." These dogs spread across the continent and became the ancestors to the German Bullenbeisser. In England, selective breeding produced a taller, stronger dog than the original Molossis and this formed the foundation of the modern Mastiff. Later, the English crossed their Mastiff with fast running hounds to produce the Englische Dogge, or Great Dane, the German national dog. However, the Germans continued to use the Bullenbeisser as a hunting dog.

  1. The heavy Bullenbeisser (Mastiff).
  2. The large hound evolved by crossing the Bullenbeisser with the old type Wolf or Deerhound (The Great Dane).
  3. The small Bullenbeisser which represents a smaller form of the heavy Bullenbeisser through natural selection (The Boxer and the English Bulldog)."
    (Bullenbeisser head types)

Wagner quotes John E. L. Riedinger of Augsburg (1698-1767):
"The main portion of most old time German hunting packs were made up of coarse haired, big dogs with bush tails and wolfish heads called 'Rüden'. They were supplied to the courts by the peasants in immense numbers and suffered great losses at every hunt, therefore no particular pains were taken to breed them. The Doggen and Bullenbeisser, however, knew instinctively how to tackle the game from behind and hold it in a way that kept them from serious injury yet gave the hunters time to reach the kill therefore they were more valuable to the hunt and were accordingly highly prized and painstakingly bred." (Wagner, 1950, p. 27)

It is generally accepted that a smaller Bullenbeisser bred in Brabant, an area in Northeast Belgium, is a direct ancestor of today's Boxer. To add historical perspective to current practice Wagner quotes Hans Friedrich v. Flemming of Leipzig (1719), who writes of the Brabanter Bullenbeisser: "Their ears are clipped while they are still young and also the tail. " (Wagner, 1950, p. 22)

Bullenbeissers from about 1800 to 1900
The noble estates on which the Bullenbeisser were bred were broken up in Germany during and after the Napoleonic wars and the dogs which had heretofore formed the hunting packs of the nobility, hunting wild boar and small bear, became the butcher's and cattle dealer's dog. It might be considered a reduction in stature of the dog, but it kept him from becoming extinct. By 1800 after the dispersion of the hunting Bullenbeisser mentioned above, the small Bullenbeisser was found as a family and guard dog where "his remarkable intelligence and tractability endeared him to so large a group of individuals that he carried on when so many breeds completely disappeared." (Wagner, 1950, pp. 32-33)

During the time that a smaller Bullenbeisser was being bred for the wild game hunts, the English Bulldog was being bred in England as early as 1632 for the same purpose. That English Bulldog did not have the extreme characteristics of today's English Bulldog--he was much more like the Brabanter Bullenbeisser in body type, but often was either white, or did have white markings.

Wagner states:
"The literature and paintings previous to 1830 indicate that all Bullenbeisser up to that time were fawn or brindle with black masks. There is never any mention of white. About this time there came a great influx of English dogs to Germany including the English Bulldog. His entry into the country quickly followed by numerous crosses with the Bullenbeisser resulted in an eventual similarity of type that made it very difficult to distinguish where any degree of Bulldog blood was present except that white color began to appear in the Boxers. This is easily understood if we bear in mind that the English Bulldog of that time was very like the Boxer, more of a small mastiff than anything else. Still there were certain peculiarities introduced that for years caused lack of of uniformity in type, shape and color in the Boxer. But lasting characteristics were not impregnated although it took years of selective breeding to eliminate some undesirable traits and to this day minor discrepancies appear at rare intervals." (Wagner, 1950, p. 34)

The Modern Boxer in Germany
The following lines of descent concentrate on those Boxers who were the primary ancestors of American Boxers. There are many other noted sires and dams which were not included in order to avoid confusion.

A Boxer club had been formed in Munich in 1895, and the founders drew up the first Boxer Standard as a guide for their future breeding. Much of this first standard still remains in the Boxer standards of today. As any good dog club should, they held a dog show as soon as possible. A picture of the Boxers in that show still survives. The modern Boxer began in the late-nineteenth century in Germany with Alt's Flora, a brindle bitch imported from France by George Alt of Munich. Flora was bred to a local Boxer whose name was never recorded. A fawn and white male from this litter, Lechner's Box, was then bred back to his mother who produced Alt's Flora II and Alt's Schecken. Schecken, when paired in 1895 with a white bulldog called "Dr Toneissen's Tom" in the records, became the dam of the first Boxer registered in the first stud book in 1904, Mühlbauer's Flocki.

Schecken's sister Flora II was bred back to her father, Box, which produced Maier's Lord, the first noted Boxer sire. Maier's Lord was mated to Maier's Flora (parentage unknown) to produce Piccolo v. Angertor, the sire of Meta v. d. Passage.

In 1898, a repeat breeding of Schecken and "Dr. Toneissen's Tom" produced Ch. Blanka v. Angertor. Ch. Blanka v. Angertor was the mother of Meta v. d. Passage.

If you can sort all of that out, you deserve an award. But the point is that there was a high degree of inbreeding during the early stages of the breed's development. Setting the genetic characteristics for a new breed cannot be done in any other way.

It is worth quoting Wagner here: "Meta v. d. Passage played the most important role of the five original ancestors. Our great line of sires all trace directly back to this female. She was a substantially built, low to the ground, brindle and white parti-color, lacking in underjaw and exceedingly lippy. As a producing bitch few in any breed can match her record. She consistently whelped puppies of marvelous type and rare quality. Those of her offspring sired by Flock St. Salvator and Wotan dominate all present-day pedigrees. Combined with Wotan and Mirzl children, they made the Boxer." (Wagner, 1950, p. 47)

Flock St. Salvator, of whom no picture exists, was one of the sires of puppies from Meta. He is not out of the line of Flora/Box but rather a different one. According to Gordon (p. 16) his breeding with Meta produced Hugo v. Pfalzgau.

Hugo v. Pfalzgau was the great-grandfather of Rolf v. Vogelsberg, the foundation sire of the great German Vom Dom line and thus a foundation sire of nearly all American Boxer lines.

Friederun and Philip Stockmann and the Vom Dom Boxers
The names Stockmann and Vom Dom are the most important ones in the history of American Boxers. Friederun Stockmann (Pictures One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six) was a young woman from Riga, in the Baltic region of Germany. In the beginning pages of her book, My Life With Boxers, she gives us her belief that she was destined to spend her life with dogs--she was born in 1891 under the Sirius, the Dog Star. At the age of 18, she says, she was led by the Dog Star to Munich where she began her art studies at the Academy in Munich. It was in Munich that Friederun met and was owned by her first Boxer, Pluto. And, oh yes, she met and married Pluto's owner, Philip Stockmann.

Frau Stockmann was not on the Boxer scene at the very beginnings of the breed, but she was a major force in the breed very soon thereafter. Frau Stockmann must have been around five when the first Boxer show was held in Munich in 1895. She showed her first Boxer, Laska, a bitch in about 1910.

As was said previously, Rolf v. Vogelsberg was one of the major Boxer sires. Because Frau Stockmann does not give specific dates early in her book, we have to do some figuring to determine when she must have purchased Rolf v. Vogelsberg. According to Denlinger (p. 35), Rolf began his show career at the age of two in 1910. Frau Stockmann says that she bought him at three years of age. She must have bought him in 1911 when she was about 20 or 21 and married to Philip Stockmann. Her first homebred champion and Rolf's son was Dampf vom Dom, whelped September 28, 1912.

Rolf v. Vogelsberg earned the German title of Sieger five times, the last time at the age of eleven after four years of service with Philip Stockmann on the front lines in World War I. He was the only Boxer of the ten that Stockmann took with him to return alive.

Rolf's descendants from 1910 to 1925 were some of the major sires of the German lines. In direct line of descent from Rolf they were: Ch. Rolf Walhall, Ch. Moritz v. Goldrain, Ch. Casar v. Deutenkofen, Ch. Buko v. Biederstein, to Ivein v. Dom.

Ivein v. Dom, whelped in January, 1925, represented Frau Stockmann's renaissance in the breeding of Boxers after World War I. Ivein's dam was Zwibel, granddaughter of Rolf v. Vogelsberg and his sire was Buko v. Biederstein a great-great-grandson of Rolf. Iwein never earned a German championship, but Frau Stockmann says that her sixth sense told her to keep Ivein and to breed him. He became the sire of the great German sire, Sigurd v. Dom.

During the five years that he remained in Germany, Sigurd attained a rank as a show dog and sire equal to the great Rolf v. Vogelsberg. At the age of five he was then sold to America to become a part of the Barmere Kennels in Van Nuys, CA. Of him Wagner said: "To Sigurd, more than to any other individual dog we owe the tremendous advance in consistent perfected balance of power and elegance." (Wagner, 1950, p. 97)

It was one of the twists of fate that two of the greatest dogs that the vom Dom kennels produced were sold to America. Sigurd's grandson, Ch. Lustig v. Dom was also sold to America and became Ch. Lustig v. Dom of Tulgey Woods. Lustig was sold only because a great price was offered for him at a time when the Stockmann family fortunes had reached a nadir. Ironically, though Frau Stockmann never saw him again, the year after Lustig left Germany her husband Philip was invited to judge the show at Westminster and Lustig was there.

With the importation of the three grandsons of Sigurd, Utz v. Dom, Dorian v. Marienhof, and Lustig v. Dom, the United States had the three greatest Boxers that German breeding had been able to produce and the focus of American Boxers shifts from Germany to America.

Again Wagner states: "The two dogs, ICh. Dorian v. Marienhof, the brindle, and Int. Ch. Lustig v. Dom, the fawn, are both in America. They represent the perfected ideal of nearly fifty years of careful breeding of Boxerdom's most aristocratic and finest families. No finer or better-bred Boxers have ever lived. They have both demonstrated their ability to reproduce quality similar to their own." Wagner, 1950, p.99)

To close the section on Frau Stockmann and the Vom Dom kennels there is the following quotation from her book, My Life With Boxers, which may help us understand her nearly lifelong devotion to our breed: "The Boxer, however, is a gentleman amongst dogs with short coats. He not only wants the best food, he wants to be handled in a civilized manner too. He can easily be upset by his master and this is called being leader-sensitive. He cannot stand a hard hand or injustice. It is true that he is pig-headed and every one has a personality of its own. His real job is to be a house and family dog and to be a friend to the children." (Stockmann, My Life With Boxers, p. 116)

Boxers in America: The Four Horsemen of Boxerdom
Milo Denlinger in his book, The Complete Boxer, calls Sigurd, Dorian, Utz, and Lustig, the "Four Horsemen of American Boxerdom" (p. 110). Even though they were German Boxers they must also be recounted in the American history because, in many ways, they were the foundation of American Boxers. Sigurd was the grandsire of the other three Horsemen.

Sigurd was whelped in July, 1929, by the Stockmanns, was sold to Charles Ludwig and then to Barmere Kennels in 1934 when he was five years old. Ten of his German sons and daughters were imported and became American champions and left champion get of their own. Fifty-five of Sigurd's get made their American championships or left champion progeny. He won Best of Breed at Westminster in 1935. He died on March 3, 1942.

Lustig and Utz were full brothers though there was a three year difference in their ages. Their sire was Zorn v. Dom out of Esta v.d. Wurm, making them double Sigurd grandsons.

ICh. Lustig sired forty-one American-bred and imported dogs who became American champions. He also produced twenty-five American bred and imported producers. One of Lustig's famous litters was the "B" litter of Lilac Hedge Kennels. In this litter, produced by Lustig out of a Dorian daughter, were three females and four males, all of whom finished their American championships. Lustig died on June 14, 1945.

Ch. Utz v. Dom, Lustig's full brother, was whelped April 18, 1936. He was imported by the famous Mazelaine Kennels, owned by John Wagner, in 1939. By the end of 1947 he had sired thirty-five champions and sixteen non-champion producers. Like Lustig, Utz had a famous litter, the "N" litter out of Ch. Nocturne of Mazelaine, a Dorian daughter. Utz won the Working Group at Westminster foreshadowing his famous son, Warlord of Mazelaine. He died in 1945, two months before Lustig.

ICh. Dorian v. Marienhof is the last of the Great Four. He was whelped in April 1933 from a full brother to the father of Lustig and Utz, Int. Ch. Xerxes v. Dom from the daughter of another excellent German import, Ch. Check v. Hunnenstein. Dorian won the Working Group at Westminster in 1937 just one year after he was imported. Some of Dorian's famous get were Chs. Symphony and Serenade of Mazelaine and Ch. Duke Cronian who became the foundation stud of the Sirrah Crest Kennels and the ancestor of Bang Away of Sirrah Crest.


High Energy and Very Active, Boxers are strong, quick, busy dogs who need plenty of exercise they enjoy physical and mental challenges.

Boxers are medium size breed.

The Boxer was one of the first breeds selected in Germany for police training.

Heraklion Museum

Clay tablet found at Phaistos with early writing which resembles hieroglyphic signs. Several symbols are grouped in a spiral manner between lines on both faces of the disk. The script has not been deciphered to date. Visit the palace of Phaistos

Protopalatial Period, diameter 10.8 - 10.5 cm

The famous statuette found at Knossos depicts a snake goddess or a high priestess. Made of clay, with raised arms which make the idol appear animated. The dress is typical of Minoan attire.
Found at Knossos.

Neopalatial Period, 29.5 cm high (11 5/8")

Links to other snake Goddess statues:
Michael C. Carlos Museum
Boston Museum of Fine Arts

Carved out of Steatite with gilded horns, with eyes made of red jasper, and white shell or marble for the line around the nostrils. Found at Knossos.

Neopalatial Period, 30.5 cm high (12")

Carved of Steatite (brown, greenish soapstone). The low relief was probably covered with gold leaf and depicts a group of joyous harvesters returning from an olive grove. See more at the Minoan Art Page. Found at Agia Triada near Phaistos. Read more about this Harvester Rython

Neopalatial Period, 11.3 cm high (4.5")

Cast gold with gold granules soldered on the surface.
Found at Chrysolakos at Malia. The two bees arranged symmetrically around a drop of honey. Read more about Minoan metalworking

Protopalatial Period, 4.6 cm high (1 13/16")

Fresco from Knossos depicting a running bull an three acrobats performing. To the left a woman holds the running bull by its horns, while a man balances on the animal's back (perhaps drawn in mid-air as he leaps), and behind the bull another woman stands as if she is about to catch the leaping man, or as if she has just landed from her own leap. Read more about Minoan wall paintings

Delos: The Most Sacred Island in The Ancient Greek World That nobody is Allowed to Live Here by Law

The tiny island of Delos opposite of Mykonos Island, a center of culture from as early as 2500 BC, well before the Golden Age of Pericles and the Parthenon, is one of Greece’s most important archaeological sites, one that no visitor to the country should miss.

Here, where Leto gave birth to Zeus’s children Apollo and his twin sister Artemis after being mercilessly pursued by jealous Hera, the sun shines bright and illuminates both mind and soul. It is perhaps for this reason, at this second “navel of the Earth” like at its sister site Delphi, that one can truly “see” oneself.

Delos gave birth to Light, the most valued of commodities in Greek civilization, and it was here that the worship of the light-giving God Apollo was centered, and made this small rock in the middle of the vast sea the most famed and sacred of all places in the known world for three centuries. And when veneration of the sacred gods gave way to the worship of money, Delos was once again at the forefront, as the most important commercial center in the ancient world, a meeting place between East and West, North and South.

Shortly after the new era ushered in by the birth of Christ, Delos is abandoned and over the years becomes deserted save for its occasional new role as shelter to passersby and pirates alike. Yet the deep footprints left by centuries of worship could be erased by neither time nor neglect. Delos unveils itself with each sunrise, its soul unchanged, captivating, sacred and when the light finally dips back into the sea at the end of the day, it stands alone and proud, softly whispering of its past grandeur.

Those who have walked along the 164-foot-long Avenue of the Lions, with its five Naxian marble beasts crouching on their haunches, forelegs stiffly upright, vigilant guardians of the Sacred Lake, who have gazed at the marble columns of its temples and stood amidst the Agora and the remains of this once cosmopolitan Greek city know why this unique island was named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO .


Los Mochis (from mochim, plural of mochic, Cahitan for "earth turtle" and used to refer to the flowers of Boerhavia coccinea) [ citation needed ] was founded in 1893 by a group of American utopian socialists who were adherents of Albert Kimsey Owen, an American civil engineer who built the first irrigation ditches in the valley. The colony, organized under the principles of utopian socialism, survived for 31 years. Albert K. Owen, the American civil engineer who came to do studies for the construction of a railway, was enchanted by Ohuira Bay and imagined the city of the future, where railways and shipping lines converged to ship throughout the world. Today, the port city of Topolobampo continues to be developed and may one day reach Owen's dream.

The city was founded by a businessman named Benjamin F. Johnston, who came to make a fortune in the cultivation of sugarcane. Benjamin F. Johnston arrived at Topolobampo attracted by Owen's city project. Johnston saw an opportunity to exploit resources such as sugar cane and with Edward Lycan, who had been linked to Zacarías Ochoa, owner of a Trapiche (raw sugar mill) named "El Águila", initiated the construction of a sugar mill. Ochoa died suddenly, and Johnston seized businesses that Lycan and Ochoa founded. "El Águila Sugar Refining Company" later became "United Sugar Company."

In 1898, Johnston laid the first stone of the sugar mill and drove the rapid growth of the city around it. The first harvest was welcomed in the year 1903.

Johnston was a very powerful and influential businessman, so powerful that he drew the street plans for Los Mochis — a modern city with wide and straight streets. It was not recognized as a city until 1903 along with Topolobampo. On 20 April 1903 a decree was founded by the mayor of Los Mochis, during the state government of Francisco Cañedo. In 1916, establishing the town of Ahome and since 1935 the municipal seat of the latter is in the city of Los Mochis. It is currently the commercial center of Valle del Fuerte and its radius of influence extends from the southern part of the neighboring state of Sonora and to the municipalities of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, Choix and Guasave in Sinaloa.

The economic development of the city began with the sugar industry, but in recent decades, its progress rests on the high-tech agriculture practiced throughout the northwestern region of Mexico.

A group of enthusiastic people in la Villa de Ahome, under the name of "separatist," fought to create a municipality outside the hegemony of El Fuerte. It achieved its objectives until 5 January 1917 when the mayor came to El Fuerte to install a new city hall in which he presided Ramon C. López who had been appointed by the state governor Francisco Cañedo.

The municipality of Ahome was created by decree of the Local Legislature dated 20 December 1917, being governor of the state Gral. Ángel Flores, and was appointed head of the municipality of La Villa de Ahome.

In 1918 Florencio A. Valdés, was the first elected mayor.

The City Council Ahome preceded by Modesto G. Castro decided to make the move to the town of Los Mochis, justifying that this population had grown so much that already exceeded several times to La Villa de Ahome.

The City Council Ahome, in a decision dated 1 April 1935, allowed the change to the header, and the State Legislature passed it through another decree issued on May 10 next, which was published in the Official Journal of State the 30th day of the month.

The transfer took place without major problems right away and offices were installed in the house owned by Don Fco. Beltran, at the corner of Hidalgo and Zaragoza next to the local occupied by the former Sindicatura.

The old town of Ahome, to remain laggard in the process of the region, had been relegated to second place. Since then the city of Los Mochis, as the town of Ahome whole have had major changes in both economic and social policy have remained constant progress to the municipality.

Climate in Los Mochis is semi-arid wet and dry (BSh), bordering on arid (BWh). Summers are extremely hot, reaching 40 °C (104 °F) with overnight lows of 26 °C (79 °F) with high humidity make the nights uncomfortable, and a heat index reaching 45 °C (113 °F) in the day. Winters are very warm, reaching 30 °C (86 °F) in the day, even though the lowest temperature recorded was 2.5 °C (36 °F) during January 1971. Rainfall concentrates in the summer: it is common to see thunderstorms and even occasional hurricanes in August and September, but winters are dry with almost no rainfall, though on 29 December 1978 133.4 millimetres (5.25 in) fell. The highest daily rainfall, however, totaled 211 millimetres (8.31 in) from a hurricane that hit the area on 8 October 1985 .

Climate data for Los Mochis (1951–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.0
Average high °C (°F) 26.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.9
Average low °C (°F) 11.7
Record low °C (°F) 2.5
Average rainfall mm (inches) 14.7
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.0 1.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.8 6.4 8.6 5.8 2.5 1.4 2.0 31.9
Source: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional [1]

Los Mochis is known for its sports culture and large, high-quality sporting facilities (Ciudades Deportivas) intended to promote participation in sports. It has two large sporting facilities that have running tracks, pools, tennis courts, baseball fields and a football stadium with a capacity of 11,000.

The city is home to the Mexican Pacific League's Cañeros de Los Mochis baseball club. The city's football team is called the Murciélagos de Los Mochis, and its basketball team is known as the Pioneros.

Professional boxing Edit

With many World Champions and undefeated boxers, Los Mochis is considered one of Mexico's best boxing's cities. [2]

The Copper Canyon Railway provides daily passenger service to Chihuahua, Chihuahua in north-central Mexico. Freight service on this route is provided by the interstate rail conglomerate Ferromex, or Ferrocarril de Mexicano, which also links to the port city of Topolobampo. [3]

The city is on Mexican Federal Highway 15, the main north-south route from Nogales to Mexico City.

The city's airport offer domestic flights, mainly to Mexico's largest cities and is served by several airlines.


Early History
Very little information exists about Durango’s pre-colonial past. It is speculated that the nomadic Nahoan Indians drifted down from the northern part of the continent (present-day United States) two millennia ago and roamed the area. Historians believe that the Zacatecas and the Tepehuanos, who established villages throughout a large territory along the Sierra Madre Occidental, occupied the area between 800 and 1400 A.D.

Did you know? The border between Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila is known as Zona del Silencio (the Silence Zone) due to the area’s natural magnetic fields that prevent radio waves from passing through.

Another tribe, the Tarahumaras, occupied an extensive area of the Sierra Madre Occidental prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Planting corn in the region’s valleys, this indigenous group lived in nearby caves excavated from the mountainous cliffs or in stone houses. The Tarahumaras had two settlements, one near Durango and another in the region to the north now known as Chihuahua. Both groups formed small agricultural communities where they grew corn, beans, chilies and pumpkins.

Middle History
The Spanish arrived in the Durango area around 1554, led by Captain Francisco Ibarra. The conquistadors encountered little resistance from the natives of the region and quickly began establishing cities. Ibarra dedicated his first years in the area to exploring new territories and founding cities, including Nueva Viscaya and Durango. In 1562, Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco named Ibarra governor of the province.

Franciscan and Jesuit priests arrived in the area around 1770, built missions and attempted to convert the indigenous groups to Christianity. Indigenous revolts–mainly among the Tepehuanos and Northern Tarahumara tribes–slowed the economic efforts of the colonizers. Throughout the colonial period, northern tribes raided the city and caused general mayhem among the Spanish colonists.

When Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla called for Mexico’s independence in 1810, several priests in Durango supported his efforts and similarly attempted to unite the population however, local authorities loyal to Spain suppressed their efforts and curbed any pro-rebellion enthusiasm. Later in the decade, Pedro Celestino Negrete overthrew Durango’s Spanish royalists and rallied support for the country’s independence. Durango, along with other Mexican states, signed the Plan of Iguala in 1821, which freed Mexico from Spanish rule.

Recent History
In 1825, Durango was officially recognized as a Mexican state and soon after drafted a constitution. Santiago Baca Ortíz became the first constitutional governor, and conservatives controlled the state for the next 25 years.

A major concern in the Durango capital during the latter part of the 19th century was persistent violence by Tarauhmaras and Tepehuanos Indians as well as Apaches who drifted into the region from the north. Because it was necessary for Durango’s local government to devote extensive time, money and manpower to defending the city, the state had little influence on or involvement in national issues.

When Porfirio D໚z became Mexico’s president in 1876, federal troops were sent to Durango to suppress the Indian uprisings. The effort helped stop attacks on Durango’s businesses and citizens and restored order to the state. In 1910, influential political and private groups in Durango banded together under Francisco Madero to oppose President D໚z, whose 30 years in office were plagued by accusations of corruption and a failure to enact social justice. Revolutionary leaders gained control of Durango in 1911. Domingo Arrieta helped the state adopt a new constitution in 1917, and peace returned to the area. After the revolution, the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party) emerged as the state’s most powerful political party.

During the 1920s, skirmishes and political and social unrest were common in Durango as in the rest of the country. By the end of the decade, however, peace had generally been restored. The Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) controlled the presidency and state government until the year 2000.

In July 1892, a dispute between Carnegie Steel and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers exploded into violence at a steel plant owned by Andrew Carnegie in Homestead, Pennsylvania. In what would be one of the deadliest labor-management conflicts in the nation’s . read more

On March 6, 1819, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that Congress had the authority to establish a federal bank, and that the financial institution could not be taxed by the states. But the decision carried a much larger significance, because it helped . read more

Multiple Indictments

Around this time, Schultz continued to grow his illicit enterprises, adding illegal gambling to his portfolio of profitable crimes. His gang operated slot machines and ran a policy racket, which was like a type of lottery. But Schultz was increasingly attracting the attention of the authorities and was indicted on a tax charge in 1933. He spent months hiding out before surrendering in November 1934. The following year, Schultz was tried twice for income tax evasion. The first case ended with a hung jury, and he was acquitted in the second one. But all of his time on trial had affected his business.

The authorities weren&apost finished with him yet, especially New York special prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey. He wanted to prosecute Schultz for his illegal policy business, but before that could happen Schultz was indicated on federal tax charges in October 1935. Still, Schultz blamed Dewey for his legal woes and started to plan to get rid of his nemesis. But allegedly his talk of killing a public figure made some of his fellow gangsters nervous, and they ordered a hit on Schultz instead, hiring members of the mob hit squad "Murder, Inc." to carry out the job.

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