John Inglis

John Inglis

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John Inglis was born in Scotland. He worked as a mechanic in Glasgow as well as playing as an outside left for Glasgow Rangers.

On 10th March 1883, Ingris won an international cap playing for Scotland against England. Scotland won 3-2. Two days later he played in the 3-0 victory over Wales. This time the team won 3-0. It was his last cap as later that year he joined Blackburn Rovers. At that time Scotland did not select men playing in England.

The Blackburn Times reported: "There is one point about Blackburn Rovers that does not give entire satisfaction and this is the introduction of Inglis of the Glasgow Rangers. It is "hard lines" on Sowerbutts or whoever else is supplanted, that after the faithful services of the past he should be pushed out in this manner, and besides that there is a class of people in the town who would rather lose the Cup on their merits than win it with the aid of a specially introduced stranger." In fact, Joe Sowerbutts, a local lad, had emerged as one of the stars of the team, and retained his place alongside Inglis.

After Blackburn Rovers beat Notts County in the semi-final of the FA Cup, the club made an official complaint to the Football Association that John Inglis was a professional player. The FA carried out an investigation into the case discovered that Inglis was still working as a mechanic in Glasgow and was not earning a living playing football for Blackburn Rovers.

John Inglis played in the final against Queens Park at outside left. Other Scots in the team included Jimmy Douglas (outside right) Fergie Suter (left-back) and Hugh McIntyre (centre-half). The Scottish club scored the first goal but Blackburn Rovers won the game with goals from Blackburn lads, James Forrest and Joe Sowerbutts.

Biden pick for cyber director uncertain if government's cyber strategy works

President Biden’s pick for America’s first national cyber director is not sure that the federal government has a unifying cyber strategy.

John C. Inglis, the nominee for the new position, told senators Thursday that if he is confirmed, his first question would be whether the government’s cyber structure works.

“We have some deep and sharp strengths, we have strength in places like [Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency], the FBI, the national agencies who do intelligence and [General Services Administration], but it’s not entirely clear that they’re coherent that we have achieved unity of purpose that they’re all operating according to a single strategy that would connect that diversity such that it becomes a strength,” Mr. Inglis said at a Senate confirmation hearing. “I think that we can and should become greater than the sum of our parts, I’m not sure that we’re yet there.”

Mr. Inglis testified alongside Jen Easterly, Mr. Biden’s pick to run the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). Together, they would be tasked with developing a national cyber strategy amid a plague of cyberattacks hitting critical infrastructure and hacks corrupting federal networks. Mr. Inglis and Ms. Easterly previously served in the National Security Agency.

Precisely what Mr. Inglis and Ms. Easterly are going to do if confirmed is still a matter of debate. Sen. Angus King, Maine independent who caucuses with Democrats, told his colleagues the nominees would oversee conflict in the cyber domain wherever it arises — on Wall Street, at a pipeline company or in a water services utility anywhere in America.

Mr. King introduced Mr. Inglis to the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee and urged the lawmakers to “reimagine conflict.”

“America is under attack, we’re under attack today, and this is one of the most serious conflicts, one of the most serious challenges that this country has faced in the post-World War II period,” Mr. King said. “The two positions that we’re really talking about today are the equivalent of the secretary of defense and the head of the joint chiefs of staff. These are people who will be charged with defending this country in what is an ongoing and serious conflict.”

The nominees opted for more benign descriptions, with Ms. Easterly casting herself as a quarterback and Mr. Inglis as her head coach. Mr. Inglis said he would oversee budgets, policy and planning, while Ms. Easterly said she would focus on getting CISA the personnel, authority, and budget it needed to ensure the agency had the ability to protect the federal government.

Upon arrival, the new federal cyber officials will find growing sums of taxpayer cash at their disposal. As cyberattacks and hacks affecting the country and government have multiplied, so has taxpayer spending on cybersecurity. CISA received $650 million as part of a COVID-19 relief package passed earlier this year, and a bipartisan duo of Reps. Jim Langevin, Rhode Island Democrat, and Mike Gallagher, Wisconsin Republican, have pushed for CISA to receive $400 million more straight away.

The installation of Mr. Inglis and Ms. Easterly in the federal government’s top cyber posts would also serve as a triumph of the Cyberspace Solarium Commission, which has pursued overhauling national cyber policy in a manner modeled on the Eisenhower administration’s secret Project Solarium study that considered options for confronting the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

Mr. King and Mr. Gallagher co-chaired the commission while Mr. Inglis served as a commissioner and Ms. Easterly participated on the commission’s “red team” that provided input on the development of a cyber deterrence strategy. Mr. King and Mr. Gallagher vouched for Mr. Inglis and Ms. Easterly’s nominations.

Congress created the commission in a 2018 defense bill and the commission touts having codified 25 of its recommendations into law. The commission successfully got the federal government to adopt all of its recommendations for the Department of Defense but had less success across other federal agencies, said Mark Montgomery, Cyberspace Solarium Commission executive director, on Steptoe & Johnson’s Cyberlaw Podcast published in April.

Mr. Montgomery said the commission officially ends on December 31, 2021, but Mr. Inglis and Ms. Easterly’s presence in the government may help ensure that the remaining agenda of the Cyberspace Solarium Commission outlasts that deadline.

John Inglis - History

Inglis/Ingles was accepted as a sept of Douglas by CDSNA at its organization in 1975 based on the original list from the book Scots Kith and Kin.

The strong connection between Douglas and Inglis is found in Early Inglis History, St. Bride&rsquos Church.

&ldquoThe roofless south transept, which is invariably known as the Inglis' Aisle, is worth close examination. The traditional story behind the name is as follows: In the early years of the fourteenth century, when Douglasdale was repeatedly overrun and often held by the English, the Inglis family tenanted the farm of Weston. Once Inglis managed to overhear the English plans for taking the castle, and at very great risk conveyed a warning to the Douglas. For this and perhaps other services he was asked to name his reward, and he replied that his greatest wish was to be buried under the same roof as his master. Accordingly, the south transept was set apart as the burial place of Inglis and his descendants for all time. So goes the tale, and until comparatively recent years descendants of the Douglas Inglises have been buried there. There are several memorial tablets on the walls, some bearing the Inglis coat of arms and the family motto, " Recte faciendo securus ". A fragment of a local rhyme survives in the couplet:

It was gi'en to Inglis and Ingliss bairns

And a' that lie in Inglis's airms.

Further evidence for Inglis is found in Nisbet&rsquos Heraldry, vol i. 83:

John Inglis of Manor obtains a charter of confirmation of his lands of Manor, to himself, and his son and heir Thomas Inglis, from his superior, Archibald Duke of Touraine, Earl of Douglas and the three stars in chief, carried by the name of Inglis, I take to be arms of patronage, and carried by that name, upon the account that they were vassals to the Douglases. Thomas Inglis of Manor made an excambion of his lands of Brankesholm, Branshaugh, Goldylands, CMahitelaw, Quhitrig, Todshaw-hills, and Todshaw-wood, which he held of the Douglases, with Sir Walter Scot of Murthouston, for the lands of Murthouston and Heartwood, lying in the barony of Bothwell in the shire of Lanark as by the charter of excambion, dated at Edinburgh the 23d of July 1446, in which he is designed, Nobilis vir Thomas Inglis de Manners and afterwards he and his family in other writs were designed, Domini de Murtboustoun, or Murdistoun.

Nisbet, Alexander, and Robert Fleming. A System of Heraldry Speculative and Practical:With the True Art of Blazon, According to the Most Approved Heralds in Europe: Illustrated with Suitable Examples of Armorial Figures, and Achievements of the Most Considerable Sirnames and Families in Scotland, &c. by Alexander Nisbet. Edinburgh: Printed for J. MackEuen. Anno Dom, 1722. Print.

John Inglis - History

Inglis, John Auchincloss, Letter. 1 item. Mss2IN47a1.
A letter, [1862], from John Auchincloss Inglis (1813–1878), possibly of the 36th North Carolina Regiment (2d North Carolina Artillery Battery), to a friend concerning the possibility of his unit joining the Army of Northern Virginia in its defense of Richmond during the Peninsula campaign.

"Interesting Bird's Eye View of the Seat of War," Map, 1861. 1 item. Map F221 1861:10.
A map, entitled "Interesting Bird's Eye View of the Seat of War," showing the states of Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina in 1861. On the reverse side is a letter, 18 July 1861, from Henry Shaw of the 2d New Hampshire Infantry Regiment concerning camp life on the eve of the first battle of Bull Run.

Irving Family Papers, 1833–1931. 55 items. Mss1IR85a.
This collection contains the papers of the Irving family of Amelia County. Wartime items consist of a commission, 12 October 1863, as major in the 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment issued to Charles Robert Irving (1835–1914) (section 5), and a parole, 10 April 1865, issued to Charles Irving at Appomattox Court House (section 6).

Jackson, John A., Letter, 1862. 1 item. Mss2J1353a1.
A letter, 15 October 1862, from John A. Jackson, of an unidentified unit, to his sister concerning his brother William's capture by the Union army during the Maryland campaign and his subsequent exchange at Winchester.

Jackson, Samuel K., Essay, ca. 1885. 1 item. Mss7:1L515:6.
This collection contains an essay written by Samuel K. Jackson (b. 1817), concerning Robert E. Lee at the second battle of Bull Run.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Papers, 1846–1932. 97 items. Mss1J1385a. Microfilm reel C598.
The papers of Thomas J. Jackson consist of materials, 1846–1932, concerning his life in general and his Confederate military service. Jackson's wartime correspondence, 1861–1863, with Robert E. Lee, John Letcher (1813–1884), Alexander Robinson Boteler (1815–1892), Stapleton Crutchfield (1835–1865), and Judah Philip Benjamin (1811–1884) concern Jackson's command at Harpers Ferry (now W.Va.), in 1861, the Romney campaign, the Valley campaign, and the battle of Cedar Mountain.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Papers, 1861–1862. 6 items. Mss2J1385a. Microfilm reel C598.
This collection consists of letters, 1861–1862, from Thomas J. Jackson to Confederate officers. Included are a letter to Samuel Cooper announcing Jackson's victories in the Shenandoah Valley at Front Royal and Winchester (a5) to Thomas Grimke Rhett (1821?–1898) concerning Union forces at Romney (now W.Va.), the need for an engineer, and flood damage to the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal (a8) to Alexander Robinson Boteler (1815–1892) regarding Jackson's arrival at Winchester, requests for cavalry, and the arming of 2,500 to 3,000 Indian troops (a10) to Pierre G. T. Beauregard concerning the gift of a pistol and Jackson's approval of Beauregard's plan of campaign in the West (a11) to Richard Stoddert Ewell regarding Ewell's role in preventing a junction of Union forces near Warm Springs (a12) and to Charles James Faulkner (1806–1884) concerning Faulkner's appointment to Jackson's staff (a13).

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Papers, 1862. 6 items. Mss2J1385c. Microfilm reel C64.
This collection consists of letters, 28 March–11 June 1862, from Thomas J. Jackson to Asher Waterman Harman (1830–1895) concerning the battle of Kernstown and the morale of Jackson's army (c1), uniform buttons and the treatment of deserters (c2), orders placing Harman in command of Staunton (c3), troop movement orders and hospital stores at Staunton (c4), a request for wagons and an offer of cavalry service for Harman (C5), and a request sent to Robert E. Lee for one piece of artillery for every 1,000 soldiers sent to Jackson (C6). The letters are printed in the Southern Historical Society Papers 19 (1891): 318–21.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Sketches, 1861–1863. 4 items. Mss2J1385b. Microfilm reel C598.
This small collection contains three drawings of Thomas J. Jackson during the war by Alexander Robinson Boteler (1815–1892) and William G. Williamson. Each sketch includes a brief description by Jedediah Hotchkiss (1827–1899). Also included is a sketch of Jackson's camp stool made by Williamson.

James, Charles Fenton, Letters, 1865. 23 pp. Photocopy of typescript. Mss2J2317a1.
Photocopies of transcripts of letters, 7–18 February 1865, from Charles Fenton James (1844–1902) of Company F of the 8th Virginia Infantry Regiment to his sister, Emma A. James of Loudoun County, concerning morale in the Army of Northern Virginia following the Hampton Roads Peace Conference, economic conditions in the Confederacy in February 1865, Robert E. Lee's general order granting amnesty to deserters upon their return to the army, the role of Confederate women in preventing desertion, and prisoner exchanges. Also in the collection is a brief postwar account of the retreat of the 8th Virginia from Yorktown in April-May 1862.

James, George Watson, Papers, 1887–1961. 846 items. Mss1J2334a.
Contains the papers of George Watson James (1887–1971) of Richmond, a poet and author. Included is a photographic copy of a drawing by John Banister Tabb (1845–1909) of the tent in which he lived while imprisoned at Point Lookout, Md. (section 3).

Jennings, Alvan James Edmund, Papers, 1862–1879. 9 items. Mss2J4413b.
This collection contains the papers of Alvan James Edmund Jennings (1820–1868) of James City County. Included are letters, 1864–1865, from Jennings to his wife, Virginia Hall (Enos) Jennings, concerning his imprisonment at Camp Hamilton. Also contains lists of property confiscated by the Confederate army during its retreat up the Peninsula in 1862 and by the Union army at different times during the war and of slaves emancipated by the war.

Jewett Family Papers, 1808–1878. 24 items. Mss2J5565b.
This collection consists primarily of the wartime letters, 1863–1865, of Pliny A. Jewett of Company E of the 1st Connecticut Cavalry Regiment. Jewett's letters home describe, in detail, camp life at locations in Maryland and Virginia, a visit to Washington, D.C., while on leave, the building of fortifications around Washington by free blacks, the execution of two deserters near Winchester in January 1864, and cavalry engagements (including operations around Fredericksburg in June 1863, the battle of Spotsylvania Court House [12 May 1864], and a cavalry raid against Lacey Springs in December 1864) (section 1). Also in the collection is a two-day pass, 17 March 1863, issued to Pliny Jewett, and two handwritten regimental newspapers, ca. 1863, edited by Jewett (section 2).

Jobson, J. Tyler, Recollections, n.d. 6 items. Typescript. Mss7:3E473.2J5793:1.
This collection contains the typed recollections of J. Tyler Jobson of Company G of the 9th Virginia Infantry Regiment. Jobson offers a detailed description of the battle of Hampton Roads. Included in the collection are photocopies of drawings of the USS Merrimack and of sketches of different stages in the battle.

Johnson, Elijah S., Papers, 1862–1907. 2 items. Mss2J6314b. Microfilm reel C598.
This small collection contains the papers of Elijah S. Johnson of Alabama. Included is a diary, 9 March 1863–14 January 1864, kept by Johnson while serving in the 15th Virginia Cavalry Regiment, describing picket duty and skirmishing along the Rappahannock River. Johnson's diary and Bible, also in the collection, bear the mark of a bullet that struck him during a fight at Brandy Station on 13 September 1863.

Johnson, S. G., Receipt, 1862. 1 p. Mss12:1862 September 17:1.
A receipt, 17 September 1862, authorizing the payment of $50 to S. G. Johnson of Company C of the 35th Georgia Infantry Regiment for his service in the army.

Johnston Family Papers, 1782–1973. 1,665 items. Mss1J6496a.
This collection consists primarily of the papers of Frederick Johnston (1812–1893) of Salem. Included is an account book, 1862–1863, kept by Charles L. Snyder (d. 1863), while serving as commissary agent for the Confederate War Department in Craig, Pulaski, and Roanoke counties (section 12). The first ninety-three pages of the book contain entries concerning the sale of cattle, payments to individuals who keep cattle for the Confederate government, the purchase of corn, payments to civilians who tended horses belonging to the Confederacy, and all aspects of buying and managing hogs.

Johnston, James Ambler, Papers, 1784–1902. 320 items. Mss1J6445a.
This collection, donated by James Ambler Johnston (1885–1974) of Richmond, contains the papers of the Johnston and related families of Botetourt County and Roanoke and Salem. The letters of Frederick Johnston (1812–1893) to his daughter, Frances Royall Johnston (1835–1909), discuss his August 1861 trip to Norfolk to visit relatives in Confederate service, his attendance at the Presbyterian General Assembly Meeting in Augusta, Ga., in December 1861, his search for wounded relatives in Richmond hospitals, Johnston's critical comments directed at Robert E. Lee following Lee's failure to destroy the Union army in the Seven Days' battles, and his comments concerning news of Salem soldiers in the Salem Flying Artillery Battery in August 1863 (section 1).

The papers of Nathaniel Burwell Johnston (1846–1925) contain a letter, 24 April 1861, from Nathaniel Johnston, while a student at the Clifton Preparatory School in Fauquier County to his father, Frederick Johnston, describing the Confederate soldiers passing by the school on their march to Harpers Ferry (now W.Va.) a one-month furlough, 1864, issued to Nathaniel Johnston of the Salem Flying Artillery Battery a statement, 1864, concerning Johnston's age, physical description, rank, and military unit an account, 1864, for rations purchased by Johnston while on furlough a certificate, 1864, documenting that Johnston found an able-bodied substitute to take his place in the 1st Virginia Battalion of Light Artillery while Johnston was on furlough and a letter, 7 February 1865, from Nathaniel Johnston to his sister concerning, in part, the offer of a late-war commission to his father, Frederick Johnston (section 2).

Also in the collection is a letter, 10 October 1861, from Robert E. Lee to John Buchanan Floyd offering suggestions of which regiments should perform certain duties at Sewell Mountain, Fayette County (now W.Va.) (section 20).

Johnston, Mary Sayre (Macon), Notes, ca. 1930. 1 item. Photocopy. Mss7:1G7674:1.
A photocopy of handwritten notes, written by Mary Sayre (Macon) Johnston (1850–1935), offering a description of a meeting between Ulysses S. Grant and Mary's father, William Hartwell Macon (1819–1891), at Ingleside, Hanover County, during the battle of Cold Harbor.

Johnston, Philip Preston, Letter, 1898. 1 item. Mss2J6462a1.
A letter, 2 December 1898, from Philip Preston Johnston (1840–1925) of Lexington, Ky., to Edwin P. Cox of Richmond, describing the character and military service of John Pelham (1838–1863), commander of the Stuart Horse Artillery.

Johnston, Samuel Richards, Papers, 1862–1899. 35 items. Mss2J6475b.
This collection consists primarily of the papers of Samuel Richards Johnston (1833–1899) of Alexandria. Materials relating to his service as an engineer on Robert E. Lee's staff include correspondence, 1865–1892, with former Confederates concerning Johnston's role as guide to James Longstreet on the second day of the battle of Gettysburg, Longstreet's march to the battlefield of Second Bull Run, and a brief recollection by Johnston of his experiences at the battle of Chancellorsville (section 1) official letters and commissions, 1862–1864, for Johnston as captain, major, and lieutenant colonel in the Confederate engineers (section 2) a letter, 11 September 1864, from Wade Hampton to Robert E. Lee concerning the need for an engineer to examine a portion of the ground along the Boydton Plank Road, southwest of Petersburg, for the purpose of building fortifications (section 3) a letter, 23 September 1864, from Wade Hampton to Samuel Johnston regarding Johnston's plan to extend Confederate earthworks southwest of Petersburg a letter, 28 March 1865, to Johnston from James Longstreet concerning fortifications near the Williamsburg Road, east of Richmond a letter, 8 January 1863, to Johnston from Alfred Landon Rives (1830–1903) referring to a sketch of the roads of Culpeper and Rappahannock counties done by Johnston for fellow engineer Jeremy Francis Gilmer (1818–1883) a special order, 9 April 1865, authorizing Longstreet, John Brown Gordon, and William Nelson Pendleton to carry out the provisions agreed upon in the surrender agreement between Lee and Ulysses Simpson Grant a special order, 10 April 1865, issued by Grant allowing paroled Confederate officers to pass through Union lines and an oath of allegiance to the United States government, 20 May 1865, sworn by Samuel Johnston (section 4). Correspondents in section 1 include John Roy Baylor (1821–1926), Osmun Latrobe (1835–1915), Fitzhugh Lee, James Longstreet, Lafayette McLaws, George William Peterkin (1841–1916), and George Wise.

Jones, Alexander Caldwell, Papers, 1858–1898. 32 items. Mss2J7104b.
This collection contains the papers of Alexander Caldwell Jones (1830–1898) of Marshall County (now W.Va.). Civil War materials include letters and telegrams from various individuals concerning his service in the 44th Virginia Infantry Regiment and as inspector general on the staff of John B. Magruder (section 1) a letter, 27 September 1862, from Nathaniel Tyler (1828–1917) of Richmond to George Wythe Randolph (1818–1867) requesting that Jones be assigned to command Confederate troops in northwestern Virginia and a letter, 19 July 1862, from William Riddick Whitehead (1831–1903), while surgeon of the 44th Virginia, regarding a leave of absence for Jones to recuperate from wounds received at the battle of Gaines' Mill (section 2). Other items include a printed order, 2 February 1864, issued by Magruder assigning Jones to duty as inspector general of the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, a commission, 1861, for Jones as major in the Confederate army, and paroles, 1865, issued to Jones by the Union army (section 4).

Jones, Benjamin Anderson, Memoirs, ca. 1902. 1 volume. Mss5:1J7113:1.
Contains the memoirs of Benjamin Anderson Jones (1842–1925). Included are descriptions of his service as a member of Company F of the 44th Virginia Infantry Regiment in western Virginia (now W.Va.) in 1861, while a prisoner of war at Point Lookout, Md., and at Elmira, N.Y., and in the following engagements: the battles of the Seven Days, Second Bull Run, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Spotsylvania Court House and in the 1862 Shenandoah Valley and Mine Run campaigns.

Jones, Beuhring Hampden, compiler, Roster of Confederate Prisoners Held at Johnson’s Island, Ohio, 1864. 1 volume. Mss12:1864:1.
This volume, 1864, compiled by Beuhring Hampden Jones (1823–1872) of the 60th Virginia Infantry Regiment, contains materials concerning Confederate soldiers imprisoned at Johnson's Island, Ohio. The bulk of the volume consists of a list, 22 November 1862–5 September 1864, of 2,609 prisoners (including each man's name, rank, unit, residence, and place and date of capture), and a list, 1 May 1862–3 March 1864, of 168 soldiers who died of disease while at Johnson's Island. Also included are lists of Confederate general officers, miscellaneous poetry composed by prisoners, and a watercolor drawing of Johnson's Island. The roster is printed in part in Collections of the Virginia Historical Society (Richmond, 1887), new ser., 6:237–345.

Jones, Catesby ap Roger, Report, 1861. 1 item. Mss2J7126a2.
A report, 12 October 1861, filed by Catesby ap Roger Jones (1821–1877) concerning an ordnance experiment testing the strength of iron fortifications conducted at Jamestown Island. Included are photocopies of drawings that accompanied the report.

Jones Family Papers, 1812–1930. 195 items. Mss1J735d.
This collection contains the papers of members of the Jones family of Virginia. Letters, 1861–1863, from Robert Brooke Jones (1829?–1864) of the 5th Virginia Cavalry Regiment to his wife, Elizabeth Hill (Goodloe) Jones (1835?–1873), discuss his service in the cavalry as a scout and the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg (section 4). The correspondence of Elizabeth Jones includes letters from Archibald Govan Hill (1839–1914) of Company H of the 53d Virginia Infantry Regiment describing picket duty on the Peninsula in February 1862 from John Taliaferro Jones (b. 1825) concerning the Confederate retreat from Centreville in March 1862 and from Mary Ann Brooke (Pollard) Jones Montague (d. 1889) and Charles Hill Ryland (1836–1914) concerning the death of Robert Brooke Jones at the battle of Yellow Tavern (section 6). Other items in the collection include a letter, 26 May 1861, to Laura (Jones) White (1837–1916) from [?] Harrison of Company C of the 5th Virginia Cavalry Regiment concerning guard duty and his frustration at the lack of military activity on the Peninsula (section 7), and a letter, 29 July 1876, from Catesby ap Roger Jones (1821–1877) to Robert Baker Pegram (1811–1894) offering a description of the Confederate capture of the powder magazine at Norfolk on 19 April 1861 (section 13).

Jones, William Edmonson, Papers, 1845–1968. 26 items. Photocopies. Mss2J7286b.
This collection contains papers relating to the Union and Confederate military service of William Edmonson Jones. Civil War materials include letters, 1863, from Jones to W. H. S. Taylor regarding horses confiscated by the Confederate army (b3–4) a general order, 8 October 1863, announcing the decision of a court martial concerning charges brought against Jones by J. E. B. Stuart (b8) and Special Order No. 281, 29 December 1862, assigning Jones to the command of the Valley District (b9).

Jordan-Bell Family Papers, 1861–1864. 19 items. Mss2J761b. Microfilm reel C598.
This collection consists primarily of the wartime letters of Isaac G. Bell and Jesse W. Jordan (1839–1862). Letters home from Isaac Bell offer descriptions of his service in the 11th Mississippi Infantry Regiment at Harpers Ferry (now W.Va.) in the spring of 1861, at the first battle of Bull Run, and in camp near Yorktown. Letters from Jesse Jordan of the 4th Alabama Infantry Regiment touch on his participation in First Bull Run, his life in camp, and his role in the Peninsula campaign.

Justice Family Papers, 1842–1917. 77 items. Mss2J9848b.
Contains the papers of the Justice family of Lunenburg County. Included in this collection are the letters, 1861–1863, of Joseph Allen Elder (1841?–1863), of Company G of the 18th Virginia Infantry Regiment, to Louisa Justice (b. 1841?) describing camp life (including a snowball fight with other Confederate units near the Rappahannock River in February 1863), picket duty near Suffolk, and the regiment's movements in North Carolina (section 2).

Our Story

Inglis' first permanent home at 48th & Darby Road.

Annie Inglis

Inglis traces its roots to a young woman of extraordinary vision and a mother of exceptional determination. Annie Inglis, the daughter of an upper middle class Philadelphia family, contracted scarlet fever as a young child and was left permanently disabled. Days before she died on May 4, 1875, seventeen year old Annie expressed her dream to her mother, &ldquothat a home for those who can't be cured will someday stand in the city.&rdquo

Annie's dream was to found a home in Philadelphia to care for those of low income with disabilities during an era when the poor and infirm were dependent entirely on charity care.

Annie Inglis

Annie gave her mother, Caroline, a $1 gold coin for auction to start a fundraising campaign. Over the next two years, that gold coin was sold several times and ultimately Caroline Inglis opened the Philadelphia Home for Incurables &ndash now Inglis House &ndash one of the first facilities in Philadelphia offering residential medical care for the poor.

Today, Inglis House is just one part of Inglis - Annie's dream has grown into a system of services and products designed to maximize the independence of adults with physical disabilities, for both those who live in our long-term residential care facility at Inglis House, as well as those living independently in community settings. With the evolution of these services, Inglis now serves nearly 1,000 people every day.

The Inglis Story

How a family name became a brand name representing quality and trust…

The Inglis name has a proud heritage in Canada. In 1859, armed with metalworking and pattern-making skills learned in England and Scotland, John Inglis moved to Guelph, Ontario and started Mair, Inglis and Evatt which built machinery for grist and flour mills.

In 1881, operating under the name John Inglis and Sons, the company moved to facilities on Strachan Avenue in Toronto. But in 1898, with the enterprise growing madly, John Inglis died. William, one of John’s five sons, assumed leadership of the business. In 1902, he led the company into the manufacture of marine steam engines and waterworks pumping engines, and he discontinued production of its previous product line.

When William Inglis died in 1935, the new Toronto Island Ferry was named after him in appreciation of his significant contribution to the city’s industrial and cultural progress.

Two years later, an American named Major J.E. Hahn, purchased the company and made significant changes to its operations. Under Major Hahn’s leadership, the company assisted in the World War II effort by manufacturing guns for the Canadian and British governments. More than 17,800 people were employed at this time creating the need for expansion at the Strachan Avenue plant.

When the war ended in 1946, the company began to manufacture consumer products for the first time. Fishing tackle, house trailers, oil burner pumps and domestic heaters and stoves were among the diverse products offered.

In the same year, John Inglis Co. Limited negotiated with Nineteen Hundred Corporation (later Whirlpool Corporation) to manufacture home laundry products. The wringer washer was introduced in 1946, and in 1950, production of the automatic washer was added. The line of appliances expanded quickly to include electric and gas dryers, and dishwashers.

By 1966, Inglis had become the leading producer of domestic laundry appliances in Canada. In 1967, a refrigerator plant was opened in Stoney Creek, Ontario near Hamilton and production of dehumidifiers was added there in 1970.

In 1972, Inglis produced its one-millionth automatic washer and began manufacturing and selling appliances under the Whirlpool brand name. A year later the company began operating under the name, Inglis Limited. During the late 1970s, Inglis Limited continued to grow by building a new warehouse and sales and service facility in Laval, Quebec expanding its automatic washer manufacturing facility in Toronto and producing compact washers.

John Inglis - History

I have always wanted to visit the INGLIS site simply out of its historical value.

This is the site of the famous INGLIS BREN GUN and the INGLIS BROWNING HI POWER 9MM pistol.

There are several buildings left that contributed to the war effort with INGLIS but are in various states of disrepair.

One being the AR WILLIAMS MACHINERY building and the red clay brick building that was adopted by INGLIS after the site was no longer going to be used a as prison office.

The AR WILLIAMS building appears to be in the midst of being renovated due to its age.

Jim F 23-Jan-2017 18:56
These pictures provide history that makes my time at Inglis even more meaningful after many years have passed. I worked at the plant on the washer and dryer assembly line as a summer student for two years (70-71) and at that time there were still some women there who had worked on munitions during the war. they just stayed and switched to appliances. The last part of the building with the iconic sign that stayed for a number of years after demolition of the factory was where I had lunch every day, up on the roof. Thank you for helping me realize the significance of that place in our war effort.

Phil D. 07-Nov-2016 20:46
I'm so glad I ran across this. The Inglis GP35 Hi-Power has always been my favorite. For some reason it has always captured me more than any other pistol. My family lived in Kitchner when these were being produced and emigrated to the US in 1948 but I'm sure that despite this the Inglis would still hold the same place for me.

I let a cream puff that was my first Curio & Relics license purchase go many years ago and kick myself when I see current prices. I will eventually find a fair deal on an unrefinshed Inglis and take it home.

Eileen 13-May-2014 19:10
I have a ben machine gun mini. model on a metal base. It is about 4 inches long 2 inches high. It is stamped INGLIS on the base directly under the gun. Would you have any information on this item. I have spent about a week trying to find information. No luck. Thanks for any and all info you could give me.
Lester Hatch 01-Apr-2012 20:26
I think my Brengun is in one of these photos! LOL. Good photo set. The picture is worth a 1000 words.
Scott Bray 19-Feb-2012 04:34
My Grandmother Aileen Bray worked at INGLIS before she was Transfer out to Lougheed House in Albert in 1944. She was a Lance Corporal in the Canadian Women's Army corp. I think she was an Weapons inspector at INGLIS. She passed away Oct 22nd, 2011. I never be more honored to have known her.
Glenn Emond 21-Dec-2010 20:03
Thanks for posting this site. My mother and Aunt worked together there during the war. She always talked about the good times they had there and now my family and I are able to see their work place.
Lester 21-Nov-2009 21:32
The Inglis MK2 Bren Gun was the most accurate, longest barreled, heaviest with the slowest rate of fire, of all the Bren gun models. To day in the UK (2009) you still see plenty of Inglis Bren guns D/A and on display. Many British Army Inglis bren guns went on to be converted to Nato 7.62mm ammunition. A conversion given to Enfield (at Enfield Lock)following the Chinese contract experience by Inglis.These Brens were in service until the early 90,s. Brens still turn up on the battlefield. Recently some Chinese Brens have even be converted to fire AK47 7.62 ammunition. Bren the best LMG ever made!
Guest 12-May-2009 05:55
Very nice coverage of a very important Canadian manufacturer , and it's poor demise of building's.
I have had to watch the same in Oshawa where alot of the CMP's where made. There very few GM building'd left if any.
Keep up the good work
DAVID H 13-Jan-2008 17:26
Thankyou for providing all these interesting pictures and information as I have just bought an INGLIS made MK1m BREN and it is fascinating to see where they were made.
Kind Regards David H UK

David Sobel 05-Dec-2007 19:50
Enjoyed this show. I hope you have had a chance to read/consult "Working at Inglis": History of a Canadian Factory, published in 1994 by Lorimer and co-authored by myself and Susan Meurer. We deposited hundreds of records and photographs in the City of Toronto Archives.

Christopher Baxter 21-Jul-2007 20:57
I very much enjoyed the Inglis factory pictatorial tour so kindly provided by Mr. Clark. I have a converted 1941 Inglis Bren MK-1m which, like the factory, represents a real piece of Canadian History. In 1992 I had a brass plaque with he following inscription engraved and imbedded in the butt stock which pretty much sums up the feelings of many about this important part of Canadian history.

“ Made By The John Inglis Co. Limited, Toronto, Ontario, - With The Skill, Dedication, Integrity, And Pride In One’s Workmanship That We Hope To See Again IN CANADA


A & J Inglis of Glasgow, was formed in 1848 as an engineering works. [4] Thomas B. Seath founded the shipyard at Pointhouse in 1845 and it was acquired by A & J Inglis in 1862. [3] In 1884 Anthony Inglis died and his son John Inglis took over. John Inglis himself, was well known for many maritime activities. In 1885 they launched 11 ships with a total tonnage of 7,470 tons. [5]

In 1867, a Patent Slip Dock for ship repairs was built at Pointhouse. This was an innovative alternative to a dry dock, invented by Robert Napier. The vessel sat on a big trolley, which was on rails, and was hauled up onto dry land by a powerful winch. The yard had up to 2,000 employees on just 18 acres of ground plus approximately 300 workers at the former premises of the company in Whitehall Foundry.

In 1897, the Transatlantic Company of Paris ordered two of a total of ten fast mail steamers for their African service at A & J Inglis. Inglis delivered two weeks ahead of their competitors. The French owners were impressed and checked carefully that the fast-track build programme had not resulted in an inferior quality, but found no evidence of this, on the contrary they were delighted with the high standard of construction achieved. [6]

Harland and Wolff bought controlling shares in the company in 1919 but the yard remained independent. [3] After Harland and Wolff, who also owned a larger yard on the opposite bank of the river at Govan, opted to consolidate its operations in Belfast, the yard closed in 1962 and is now the site of the new Riverside Museum.

Clippers and yachts Edit

Some of the first ships built by the shipyard were propelled by a combination of sails and steam engines. Because of their elegant design and high speed they were recognised as leading-edge representatives of their class.

The shipyard became famous by building the British Royal Yacht Alexandra and the Egyptian Royal Yacht SS Safra El-Bahr. The turbine yacht TS Vanadis was built of steel, rigged as a triple screw schooner and, unusually, was powered by steam turbines. [7]

Paddle steamers Edit

Famous ships built by the firm include the paddle steamer Waverley, [2] now the world's last seagoing paddle steamer. Other Inglis-built paddle steamers include the Maid of the Loch, [2] which still serves as a visitor attraction on Loch Lomond, [8] and the forerunner to the Humber Bridge, PS Lincoln Castle which was controversially broken up in situ at Grimsby's Alexandra Dock, despite her uniqueness of design as what was likely to have been Inglis's only cargo carrying estuary paddle steamer designed chiefly as a practical workhorse as opposed to a more elegant 'pleasure steamer' image more commonly associated with paddle steamers. In ocean-going service, paddle steamers became much less useful after the invention of the screw propeller, but they remained in use in coastal service and as river tugboats, thanks to their shallow draught and good manoeuvrability.

Conversions and extensions Edit

The shipyard was also specialised in conversions: On 16 May 1901 the TS King Edward was launched, which had been built by William Denny and Brothers in Dumbarton. The builders hoped to attain a speed of 20 knots (37 km/h) with the turbine machinery. However, on 24 June 1901 in seven return runs over the mile, the best mean speed attained was 19.7 knots (36.5 km/h). On the next day at the Pointhouse yard of A. & J. Inglis the central propeller of 4 feet (1.2 m) diameter was exchanged for one of 4 feet 9 inches (1.45 m) diameter, and the outer propellers of 2 feet 10 inches (0.86 m) diameter were exchanged for propellers 3 feet 4 inches (1.02 m) diameter. Trials on 26 June 1901 achieved a mean of 20.48 knots (37.93 km/h).

In 1905, an extension and rebuild of the SS Mahroussa was undertaken. The ship had been originally built for Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and was later renamed to SS El Horria. The two paddle wheels were replaced by triple screws powered by steam turbines built by Inglis at their Warroch Street Engine Works in Glasgow. Inglis were one of the first companies licensed by the Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company Wallsend for the manufacture of steam turbines in their own works. The ship was still in use in 2001 as a luxury yacht. [9]

Railway ferries Edit

Inglis built eight ferries between 1907 and 1929 for the Entre Rios Railways Co. in Argentina. These were used between 1907 and 1990 to cross the Paraná River and join the Buenos Aires province and the Entre Rios province, until new bridges were built over the rivers they crossed:

  • Lucía Carbó (1907)
  • María Parera (1908)
  • Mercedes Lacroze (1909)
  • Roque Saenz Peña (1911)
  • Exequiel Ramos Mejía (1913)
  • Dolores de Urquiza (1926)
  • Delfina Mitre (1928)
  • Carmen Avellaneda (1929)

Pictures of the Argentine train ferries at the Histarmar website. [10]

Motor vessels Edit

The MV Lady Rose was originally christened Lady Sylvia when launched in 1937 for the use on Barkley Sound. [11] She was designed for the sheltered coastal waters of British Columbia. However, this was the first diesel powered vessel to cross the Atlantic driven by a single propeller. Lady Rose was acquired by the Clayton family of Sechelt in September 2019 and she was relocated to the MacKenzie Marina in Sechelt soon thereafter. [12] Restoration plans are still being formulated.

MV Aqueity and MV Anonity were 890 GRT coastal tankers built in 1945 for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT).

The North Carr Lightship was launched in 1932 and created quite a stir in Edinburgh on account of her fog horn being tested while lying ¾ mile off Granton, Edinburgh in the Firth of Forth. As the fog horn had a range of approximately 10 miles, north Edinburgh could hear it loud and clear and the complaints were numerous - particularly as it was being sounded in clear weather. "Hundreds of city dwellers have had no sleep over three consecutive nights" and "The most flagrant individual breach of the peace is as nothing compared with the ceaseless boom and consequent suffering of the past three nights" were typical statements at the time. [13]

During the Second World War the shipyard diversified into the built of military ships:

    laid down 13 October 1939, launched 23 May 1940 and completed 17 August 1940. Transferred to Greece as Kriezis. laid down 26 October 1939, launched 26 June 1940 and completed 20 October 1940. and HMS Sarabande – Dance-classarmed trawlers - Both launched 1940, sold 1946 – Shakespearian-classnaval trawler – Launched 1941, sold 1946 – Shakespearian-class naval trawler – Launched 3 May 1941, transferred to Kenya 1946, joined Royal East African Navy 1952, redeployed to Madagascar 1964 was a Flower-classcorvette that was launched on 28 September 1943 and served in the Royal Canadian Navy. , HMS Switha and HMS Oxna – Isles-class naval trawlers - Launched 1942-43 – Castle-classcorvette – Launched 10 December 1944, Became OWS Weather Reporter in 1957. – originally Totnes Castle – Castle-class corvette – Launched 12 April 1944. Transferred to Canada as HMCS Humberstone 1944. Sold for mercantile service 1947 was an 813 GRTEmpire coaster. Launched on 19 January 1945 and completed in April 1945. Sold in 1948 to Kuwait Oil Company and renamed Adib. Operated under the management of Angli-Iranian Oil Co Ltd. Sold in 1952 to Shell-Mex and BP Ltd and renamed BP Transporter. Scrapped in June 1965 in Antwerp, Belgium.

Cancelled military orders Edit

Several military orders for corvettes and tankers were cancelled at the end of the Second World War:

For me the story began with a yard sale in Guelph a few years ago that included a box of old fishing reels. As I pawed through the box, I came across a Model 1864 Ausable Shakespeare fly reel made by the Inglis Canada Company. Besides being an avid fly angler, I also collect antique fly fishing equipment and although this reel didn’t appear to be that old, I was intrigued that it had been manufactured in Canada. Not very many fly reels have been made in Canada. I figured that there might be a good story behind the reel.

James Emanuel Hahn from his 1954 autobiography “For Action”

Starting with the internet, I initially thought that the story involved the John Inglis Company of Toronto, and to an extent it did. The John Inglis Company manufactured shells and steam engines for freighters during the First World War and boilers, grain elevator and conveying equipment, hydraulic turnbines, tugs, and reciprocating and centrifugal pumps during the 1920’s. But like so many businesses, the John Inglis Company struggled during the Depression of the 1930’s and when the head of the company, William Inglis, one of John sons, died in 1933, the company went into receivership. In 1937 James Emanuel Hahn bought the manufacturing facility located on Strachan Avenue near Toronto’s downtown, and that’s when the story really gets interesting.

James Emanuel Hahn was born in 1892 in New York City of a German father, Alfred, and an Austrian mother ,Eugenie, nee Schlossburg. His parents had immigrated to the U.S. in 1890. James’ father was a salesman for a company which specialized in the manufacture of builders’ hardware and he had travelled in Canada and probably liked the large German-Canadian community in the Kitchener-Waterloo area. So in 1899 when he was seven years old James’ parents moved the family to New Hamburg where a Louis Hahn (no relation) and Alfred founded the Hahn Brass Company at a location on Waterloo Street in New Hamburg—one of two locations of the now Riverside Brass & Aluminum Foundry Limited.

James went to grade school in New Hamburg and then to high school at Kitchener Collegiate Institute, which was then known as the Berlin Technical and Collegiate Institute

In his excellent 1954 autobiography “For Action” James writes:

“In my earliest days I enjoyed fishing and boating on the River Nith and hunting in the woods in the surrounding countryside. Hunting, fishing and boats, and the equipment associated with all three, have remained among my main hobbies throughout my entire life. It is no accident that at one time or another in later years, companies that I directed produced fishing tackle, guns and the complete propulsion equipment for ships at sea”.

After graduating from high school, in 1911 Hahn began an academic program in Political Science at the University of Toronto, but had to withdraw in his third year because his father was seriously ill. After the New Year, once his father was out of danger, he discovered he would have to wait until the fall to resume his UofT program.

Anxious to have something to do over the winter months, James applied for a job as the Principal at the school in Byng Inlet north of Parry Sound on Georgian Bay. Due to the community’s urgent need the Village Trustees accepted his application, but were understandably concerned when the nineteen year old new Principal–they hadn’t asked him his age–stepped off the train. However, James rose to the challenge and turned his six months in the lumbering town into a good experience for Principal and students alike. So much so, that the students presented him with a pair of paddles when he left.

Instead of resuming his studies at the University, Hahn went into business with his father, but when the declaration of war occurred on August 4th, 1914 he volunteered for active service. However, when most of his Battalion, the First Canadian Infantry Battalion, left for England, he was told that he was going to be left behind because of his German last name. That did not sit well with James, so he took a huge chance, by-passed proper channels, met with the Minister of National Defence and appealed that he be allowed to go. The gambit worked and by February of 1915 he was training in the mud of the Salisbury Plains before shipping off to France. James’s German last name created additional controversy as he ended up involved in army intelligence and the matter had been raised in the Canadian House of Commons. But his commanding officers rallied around him and the controversy was soon laid to rest.

Hahn was wounded three times during WW1, the third time in September of 1916 was life threatening. He had been hit in the hip by shrapnel from an exploding shell during the Battle of the Somme. James did pull through and was sent back to England towards the end of October and then returned to Canada for three months leave. Towards the end of that three months he received instructions to attend a Medical Board review. Anticipating that the Medical Board would declare him medically unfit, Hahn instead bought his own ticket back to England to sail on February 4th of 1917. In England he appealed to his senior officers that he be allowed to return to active duty—an appeal that was again successful, not least of all because he had in the meantime received the Military Cross from King George V at Buckingham Palace.

Through 1918 Hahn participated in several battles by gathering intelligence, often from near the front lines, which helped plan many of those battles. He became acutely aware of the importance of keeping the troops well equipped with guns and ammunition which the German forces always seemed to have more of.

Finally on November 11, 2018 the Armistice was signed and the war to end all wars itself came to an end.

James returned to Canada in June of 1919 with the rank of major and was able, through a special arrangement for veterans, to attend Osgoode law school where, as part of that same special arrangement, he was permitted to complete a law degree in one year instead of the usual three. He met Dorothy McLagan on New Year’s Eve, 1920 and they were married on September 15th 1921.

Having decided that the legal profession was not for him, James went into industry. He got involved in the fledgling radio industry and met with great success. But it was not all work and no play. Hahn joined the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and became involved in yacht racing. He also took up fishing again and, in particular, fly fishing.

Although his companies were affected by the Depression of the ‘30’s, Hahn weathered the storm. He was becoming increasingly concerned about the rise of Hitler in Germany and by 1936 was sure that another war was approaching. That’s when James bought the John Inglis Company, and in 1938, just ahead of the 1939 start of World War 2, secured the first of many contracts to produce the new Bren Machine Gun. By the end of World War 2 the John Inglis Company was the single largest producer of the Bren Machine Gun for Canada and Britain. The company also built other weapons and manufactured ammunition as well.

Hahn also became involved in the Crown company, Victory Aircraft that turned out Lancaster Bombers which played a pivotal role for the Allies.

When World War 2 ended in 1945 the John Inglis Company employed seventeen thousand people. The question immediately arose as to what changes the Company was going to have to make to keep those people employed in a post war world. New product lines would have to be identified that would use the skills that had been developed in the war time work-force. Perhaps most famously, Inglis washer and driers emerged out of the process. But lots of other products too. Glass lined steel tanks for breweries, equipment for pulp and paper mills, engines for Canadian destroyers, recreational trailers—all were manufactured by Inglis Canada.

Let’s not forget about the Shakespeare-Inglis fly reel where this story started. Just as the manufacture of the Bren Machine Gun required the machining of many small parts in large quantities, so does the manufacture of fishing reels. As a boy, Hahn had been given a Shakespeare fishing reel which he remembered fondly. So when Inglis Canada decided to also produce fishing equipment in the post war years, an licensing agreement was arrived at with Shakespeare, at that time a Michigan based company. Inglis began producing rods, reels, lines, lures and tackle boxes under license to Shakespeare, but proudly stamped Inglis Canada. Inglis Canada had its own catalogue and marketed Shakespeare-Inglis products largely independent of the Shakespeare Company into the 1960’s.

James Emanuel Hahn passed away on August 31, 1955. That Inglis-Shakespeare fly reel I picked up at that yard sale in Guelph is a little part of James’ legacy that reminds me of his reel interesting story.

10 Pictsweet Drive
Bells, Tennessee 38006

Telephone: (901) 422-7600
Fax: (800) 561-8810


Public Company
Incorporated: 1956 as United Industries Company, Inc.
Employees: 2,100
Sales: $195.8 million (1997)
Stock Exchanges: American
SICs: 5142 Packaged Frozen Foods 0161 Vegetables and Melons 0182 Food Crops Grown Under Cover

United Foods, Inc., is a major processor and marketer of frozen vegetables in the United States. With facilities for processing and cold storage in Bells, Tennessee Ogden, Utah and Santa Maria, California, United Foods markets nearly 70 percent of its output under the Pictsweet brand, which it built into a national brand during the 1990s. While the company owns and operates mushroom farms in Utah, Oregon, and California, most of its raw vegetables are supplied by independent growers located across the country.

Like other companies in the frozen food industry, United Foods' revenues and profitability are subject to the normal cyclical conditions and risks inherent in the agricultural industry. Adverse weather conditions and excess inventories can cause substantial reductions in the annual volume of product processed in the company's facilities, in which case the unit cost of that year's production increases substantially, resulting in reduced profit margins for one or more years. On the other hand, unit costs decrease when there is a bumper crop, but selling prices will also generally be depressed.

During the company's 1996 fiscal year, 72 percent of United Foods' sales were to retail outlets (grocery chains, independent food stores, and military commissaries), 18 percent to institutional outlets (restaurants, hospitals, schools, hotels, and federal and state government agencies), and eight percent to other food companies. Approximately two percent of the company's revenues were derived from rental and miscellaneous income. Trucking services accounted for less than one percent of overall revenue. During the year the company's five largest customers were the Defense Personnel Support Center, Food Lion, Inc., The Kroger Company, Kenneth O. Lester, Inc., and J.R. Simplot Company, Inc.

1950s Origins as a Texas Grain Storage Company

United Foods was incorporated as United Industries Company, Inc., in Texas in 1956. With headquarters in Houston, and its principal business the warehousing of grain under contract with the Commodity Credit Corporation, the company became established in the grain storage business when it acquired the Santana Grain Storage Co., Inc., and the Southwest Grain Storage Co., Inc. in 1958. These two companies were merged into United the following year.

In 1961, the company adopted its present name and went public, listing its stock on the American Stock Exchange. Operations during this time included subsidiaries engaged in freezing and packing vegetables and shrimp, and supplying bananas, feed, and market-fattened cattle to packers in the Houston area. The company also operated a cold storage warehouse in Brownsville, Texas. In 1961 United Foods had net income of $.4 million on revenues of $4.8 million.

By the end of the 1960s United Foods was committed to freezing and packaging vegetables, shrimp, and fruit as its principal line of business. During the decade it had made numerous acquisitions of frozen food processing companies, including Western Frozen Foods of Watsonville, California, in 1963 Colonial Cannery, Inc., of Independence, Louisiana, in 1964 and Sodus Fruit Exchange, Inc., of Sodus, Michigan, in 1966. In 1966 it divested itself of its small business investment company, First United Capital Corporation.

In 1967 United Foods made four major acquisitions in the frozen food business: Trappe Frozen Foods Corporation of Trappe, Maryland Othello Packers, Inc., of Othello, Washington Dulany Foods, Inc., a subsidiary of Green Giant Co. and the frozen food business of California Consumers Corporation. For its 1968 fiscal year United Foods had net income of $57,216 on revenues of $28.8 million.

Relocation in the Early 1970s

Through a stock swap United Foods acquired the John Inglis Frozen Foods Company of Modesto, California, in November 1970. During the 1970s this would become one of the company's two major operating subsidiaries, with processing plants in Salinas and Modesto, California. Following the acquisition, founder John Inglis joined United Foods' board of directors and soon became the company's chairman and chief executive officer.

The second major operating subsidiary, Winter Garden Freezer Co., Inc., of Tennessee, was acquired in November 1971. Following the acquisition, United Foods moved its headquarters from Houston to Memphis, Tennessee. Before the end of the decade, United Foods would again move, establishing headquarters in Bells, Tennessee, located in West Tennessee about a hundred miles northeast of Memphis.

During the 1970s United Foods' revenues hovered around the $100 million mark. Depending on weather conditions and the supply of raw vegetables, the company would either show a net profit or net loss. In 1975, for example, it had net income of $3.3 million on revenues of $106.5 million. Then in 1976 and 1977 it posted net losses of $2 million and $.6 million on revenues of $99 million and $98.5 million, respectively.

By 1977, when John Inglis retired, the company was one of the largest processors and marketers of frozen vegetables in the United States. It produced all major vegetables except potatoes and offered the broadest line of any frozen vegetable processor. It operated 11 processing facilities in California, Washington, Tennessee, Utah, and Texas, providing the company with a wide geographical source of supply within the major vegetable growing areas of the United States. Five of the plants were located in the fertile growing areas of California, including the San Joaquin Valley, the Salinas Valley, the Pajaro Valley, the Santa Cruz Coastal Area, and the Santa Maria Valley. Moreover, the Bells, Tennessee, facility was located near the productive farmlands of the Mississippi Delta, and the Brownsville, Texas, facility was located near the rich Rio Grande Valley. At this time United Foods' marketed its produce under the major brand names of Dulany, Prime Froz-n, and Winter Garden. The company was also a major packer of frozen vegetables for retail grocery chains sold under their own private labels.

A new management team was put in place at United Foods in March 1978, led by J.O. Tankersley, chairman and CEO, and James I. Tankersley, president and chief operating officer. During 1978 the company posted net income of $3.3 million on sales of $108.3 million. After two years of net losses it had returned to profitability, but it would not attain that level of net income again until 1983.

Diversification in the Late 1970s, Early 1980s

In 1979 United Foods had record revenues of $122.2 million, but a disappointing net profit of only $.6 million. The company cited pressures from inflation on manufacturing and distribution costs, and it was not able to recover these costs through higher selling prices.

Given the seasonal nature of its vegetable business, United Foods began to consider diversifying into other areas of agribusiness to add stability to future profits. In 1980 the company announced it would undertake a program of acquisitions to diversify its operations within the field of agribusiness. Former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz and Tennessee Lieutenant Governor John Wilder were added to the board of directors to help guide United Foods in its diversification program.

Faced with a choice of expanding its eastern farming operation into a larger corporate farming operation or getting out of farming altogether in the eastern United States, the company terminated its eastern farming operation and disposed of its farming assets in December 1978. In fact, during the next two years it ceased all farming operations and disposed of related farming equipment, finding that independent growers were inherently more efficient than corporate farms, which had been providing about eight percent of the company's raw product needs. In December 1980 United Foods also discontinued its western farming operations.

During this time, inventories continued at significantly higher levels, causing higher interest and storage expenses and depressed selling prices. Continuing inflation and a slowing growth rate in the mature industry of frozen foods made inventory management and the proper matching of selling prices to current costs even more important to the company.

To meet these challenges, United Foods implemented cost reduction plans, intensified its management of inventories, implemented tighter operating control systems, added more depth to its management base, and announced a major repositioning of underutilized assets.

The company was soon successful in reducing its inventories of frozen vegetables by approximately 45 percent. Adopting a defensive posture toward inflation--implementing programs of cost reductions, lower inventory levels, and tighter management controls--the company enjoyed considerably improved operating results.

During this time United Foods was taking a slow and deliberate approach in its acquisitions program. It planned to complete its first diversification in the summer of 1982 with the acquisition of Freezer Queen Foods, Inc., of Buffalo New York. Freezer Queen produced and marketed frozen entrees in two-pound trays and five-ounce "cook-in" pouches.

The company's improved profits, up about 80 percent from 1981 to 1982, was attributed to stronger market prices, selective reductions in low margin business, improvements in production costs, and reductions in average inventory levels in the Frozen Food Division.

A newly formed Land Division was designed to develop a source of raw product which would allow United Foods to grow and process a portion of its West Coast vegetables in Tennessee. It acquired approximately 7,100 acres of land on the Cumberland Plateau in East Tennessee. The company noted that the cost to ship a pound of vegetables from California to the East Coast continued to escalate due to higher fuel costs. With the items being produced in Tennessee, the company could cut its freight costs in half. Like others in the frozen food industry, United Foods was implementing a program to move a significant portion of its vegetable production to the central United States from the West Coast. In 1983 the company leased approximately 2,300 acres of the land it had acquired in Tennessee to independent farmers.

By June 1982, United Foods had completed its acquisition of Freezer Queen Foods, Inc. In October of that year, the company bought the $50 million frozen vegetable division of Stokely-Van Camp. Included in this purchase were vegetable processing plants in Fairmont, Minnesota, and Albany, Oregon, which were added to United Foods' frozen food division. As a result, United Foods began selling frozen vegetables throughout the United States under the Pictsweet and Stokely brands and in the Midwest and South under the Everfresh brands. The acquisitions were financed with borrowed capital, and annual revenues were expected to surpass $200 million the following year.

The market presence of United Foods was becoming more widespread, as its brands included Dulany (Eastern region), Tennessee and Everfresh (Midwest and South), Prime Frozen, Soup Ladle, Freezer Queen, Stokely (licensed), Pictsweet, and Winter Garden.

As expected, the company had record sales in 1984, due primarily to the acquisitions of Freezer Queen and Stokely-Van Camp. However, the company also experienced an unexpected decrease in earnings. Competitive market conditions resulted in depressed selling prices throughout the fiscal year. Sales volume was lower than expected in the fourth quarter due to adverse weather conditions, which caused the company to deplete its stocks of certain key vegetables. Operating expenses were up to $31.7 million from $27 million the prior year. These were largely attributed to additional staff and expenses associated with the expansion of the frozen food product line.

Like other processors, United Foods was moving its operations out of the traditional growing areas of California and the Pacific Northwest to be nearer the eastern population centers, allowing for lower distribution costs. Since, the remaining western processing capacity far exceeded that needed to serve western population centers, some western processors began to lower their prices, even while many key vegetables were in short supply.

In response, United Foods led an industry realignment, investing capital to increase the capacity of its Tennessee and Minnesota processing and distribution facilities. It closed five plants located in California and the Pacific Northwest, while its remaining western processing capacity was brought into line with demand there.

Freezer Queen operated above expectations in 1984: its profitability surged and market share was gained in the frozen entree categories in which it participated. A new line of twin-pouch single-serving entrees was developed for introduction to several test markets by the end of 1984. This was considered one of the fastest growing areas of the frozen food industry.

The Effects of Streamlining in the Late 1980s

However, overall revenues at United Foods would not reach 1984 levels again until the early 1990s. During this period the company cut back its processing facilities and consolidated its brands. At the end of February 1986 it sold the assets used in the Freezer Queen Division for $35.6 million to James Crean of Ireland, using proceeds to reduce the company's long-term debt. Freezer Queen had contributed approximately $44 million in revenue in 1986, $39.9 million in 1985, and $34.8 million in 1984.

Moreover, the company began experiencing labor problems in the summer of 1986 that would grow more severe over the coming years. Citing the need to reduce labor costs to remain competitive, the company noted that wage rates paid by competitors had declined during the year and that wages paid in Mexico were lower than U.S. rates. When its union contracts expired, United Foods attempted to negotiate lower wage rates, resulting in strikes in 1986 and 1987 at the company's Fairmont, Minnesota Modesto, California and Salinas, California, facilities. During 1987 and 1988, United Foods permanently replaced its striking workers at the Modesto and Salinas facilities. Decertification elections were held, with employees at both plants voting against the union. Then, in 1991 the company closed its plants in Modesto and Salinas and consolidated the frozen vegetable processing and cold storage operations at a leased facility in Santa Maria, California, effective June 28, 1991. The closing of the Salinas plant put 250 people out of work.

As a result of these closures, in 1992 the company operated from three frozen vegetable processing plants and cold storage warehouses located in Bells, Tennessee Fairmont, Minnesota and Ogden, Utah. It leased one processing plant and cold storage warehouse facility in Santa Maria, California, which it would later purchase.

United Foods also owned and operated three mushroom farms located in Utah, California, and Oregon, acquired in 1987 when United Foods was the high bidder in bankruptcy proceedings for certain assets of Mushroom King, Inc. The assets were purchased for $1.4 million, and the farms proved profitable for United Foods.

By the late 1980s United Foods' brand names had been consolidated into Pictsweet (a national brand), Dulany (sold in the East), Tennessee (available in the Midwest and South), and Winter Garden (marketed in the Southeast). In the beginning of 1988 the company launched Pictsweet Express, a new line of vegetables for the microwave, and by 1991 Pictsweet and Pictsweet Express were the company's two dominant brands. During the 1990s the Pictsweet brand was developed into a national brand in order to distinguish the company's products on a basis other than price.

Facing Strong Competition in the 1990s

In December 1992 United Foods closed its Fairmont, Minnesota, facility, leaving it with three processing plants and cold storage warehouse facilities. To offset the loss of these facilities, the company entered into a reciprocal supply agreement with another food processing company, with deliveries to begin in 1993. The other company would supply products that were previously processed in Fairmont, while United Foods would supply it with frozen vegetables processed at Bells and Santa Maria.

Throughout the 1990s United Foods faced extremely strong competition, especially from owners of the Birdseye and Green Giant brands, who spent large amounts of money in a fight for the number one position in branded sales. Other competition came from private, regional U.S. vegetable processors and privately-owned Mexican vegetable processors competing for volume. Such competitive pressures, combined with low overall growth, resulted in weak market pricing. United Foods management expected this condition to continue for several years.

Amy, Jeff, "Tennessee Firm a Lone Voice Supporting Better Labeling of Frozen Vegetables," Nashville Banner, April 24, 1997.
"United Foods, Inc., Announces Operating Results," Business Wire, April 11, 1997.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 21. St. James Press, 1998.

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