Fil’akovo Castle

Fil’akovo Castle

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Built on volcanic rock, Fil’akovo Castle and the town beneath it are located near the border between Slovakia and Hungary.

When Fil’akovo Castle was built, which is said to have been sometime by the 12th century, the area belonged to Hungary, as did most of present-day Slovakia. It would later be expanded both in the 15th and 16th centuries, the latter improvements a futile attempt to defend it against the Ottomans.

The most interesting period of Fil’akovo’s history is from the 16th century, particularly from 1554 when it was taken by the Ottoman Empire. The town belonged to the Turks for forty years, and was made the seat of a sanjak or administrative district of the Empire–hence the palm tree on Fil’akovo’s coat of arms.

In the late 17th century, Fil’akovo Castle was burned and abandoned. The main tower, known as Bebek’s Tower, now houses a permanent exhibit on the castle’s history. It includes objects from the Ottoman and Hungarian periods. The top floor has temporary exhibits (in October 2010, the exhibit was on African dolls and masks). Tours of Bebek’s Tower are given in Slovak or Hungarian. After the tour, visitors are free to wander about the ruins.

Berkeley Castle

Berkeley Castle ( / ˈ b ɑːr k l i / BARK -lee historically sometimes spelt Berkley Castle or Barkley Castle) is a castle in the town of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom. The castle's origins date back to the 11th century, and it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building. [1]

The castle has remained within the Berkeley family since they reconstructed it in the 12th century, except for a period of royal ownership by the Tudors. It is traditionally believed to have been the scene of the murder of King Edward II in 1327. [2] [3]

In 1956 Berkeley Castle was opened to visitors and remains open today. [4]

II. A rift in the network: Poland&rsquos western frontier with Germany

The new &ldquoold&rdquo Polish-German frontier. The faint yellow line running between East Prussia and Silesia denotes Germany&rsquos pre-1918 border. Note how the roads and railways (in red and black) connecting these territories are bisected by the new boundary approximating the Polish-Prussian border of 1772.

The Polish-German border of the interwar period was forged from three years of wars, uprisings, and plebiscites between 1918 and 1921, followed by a customs war in 1925.13 While Germans deeply resented the loss of a substantial part of their prewar empire, Poles saw the new frontier as a return to the border that had run between Prussia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth before the latter was partitioned between 1772 and 1795.14 Since they believed that Prussia had acquired its Polish lands illegitimately, many of Poland&rsquos leading politicians at the start of the twentieth century demanded a return to the old boundary, if not the acquisition of an even larger piece of German territory as compensation for Poland&rsquos historical subjugation.15

Infrastructural nationalism. An interwar German propaganda image depicts the &ldquoPolish corridor&rdquo as a &ldquodestroyer of infrastructure&rdquo that has artificially disrupted the &ldquoEast German infrastructure network.&rdquo

The problem, however, was that most of this historically Polish region had experienced significant economic development under Prussian and later German rule. As a consequence, the reinstated borders of 1772 were now traversed by railways, roads, and telegraph lines that had linked Germany&rsquos major Silesian and Pomeranian cities with Berlin and Hamburg on an east-west axis. A particular point of frustration for German politicians, including Adolf Hitler, was the narrow Polish corridor to the Baltic Sea that drove a wedge in between Germany proper and its exclave of East Prussia.16 What had been a growingly integrated imperial infrastructural &ldquonetwork&rdquo up to 1918 – in the expression used so often at the time -- was now divided between competing nation-states whose authorities reorganized the courses of major rail lines to facilitate border enforcement and cater to their internal economic needs. Checkpoints cropped up along the new &ldquohistoric&rdquo border, further altering the built environment, while new national customs regimes upended familiar timetables for travelers.

A fragmented borderland. The larger map shows the post-1921 Polish-German border in Upper Silesia (highlighted in the inset) as a thick red line. Note how the new boundary ran across roads and railways, divided villages, and partitioned the cluster of industrial cities on the right-hand side.

For Roman Dmowski, the ideological leader of the Polish nationalist right from the early twentieth century until his death in 1939, a return to the frontier of 1772 was not enough.17 The prime territories to be acquired lay elsewhere, namely in parts of East Prussia, along the Pomeranian coast, and, above all, in the industrial powerhouse of Upper Silesia. While the Polish-German border began to stabilize further north, clashes over Upper Silesia continued until the region was partitioned on the basis of a plebiscite in 1921. Both sides agitated vigorously for votes, coveting the iron and coal mines as well as the chain of industrial cities stretching from Katowice/Kattowitz to Gliwice/Gleiwitz.18

Industrial propaganda. Two competing posters from the time of the Polish-German plebiscite in Upper Silesia in 1921. The image on the right declares &ldquoThe prayer of the homeland: May Upper Silesia stay German!&rdquo After intense campaigns of agitation among local voters, the plebiscite took place and resulted in Poland gaining the majority of the region&rsquos industrial cities and coal and steel resources, while Germany retained the greater part of the territory and population. The loss of Upper Silesia to Poland remained a major focus of German revanchist nationalists throughout the interwar period.

The final border drawn in Upper Silesia left most of the territory and population in Germany&rsquos hands but rewarded Poland with the better part of its economic resources. What is less well known is that the new frontier mandated by the League of Nations cut awkwardly across local streets, railway lines, and even individual dwellings, both in the countryside and in major cities such as Bytom. This is evidenced in a series of photographs from interwar Upper Silesia in which the German side of the border is marked with a &ldquoD&rdquo and the Polish side is designated with a &ldquoP.&rdquo Though seemingly elegant on paper, the new frontier produced striking irregularities on the ground by fragmenting the prewar landscape along jagged lines imposed from above. Actually enforcing these boundaries in practice, however, was another matter, as those whose existence was crossed by the border lived and worked around it. Still, these incisions into the territory of prewar Germany stoked the sense of resentment that the Nazi regime propagated and exploited to win popular support for the cause of eastward expansion and border revision, especially in the regions of Silesia, Pomerania, and East Prussia that voted heavily for Hitler in 1933.19

Landscapes of partition. These interwar photos highlight the course of the post-1921 Polish-German frontier in Upper Silesia, which divided roads, railways, and even individual properties that had been previously integrated. In practice, enforcing an irregular boundary drawn up on the basis of plebiscite results was a messy and imperfect affair. &ldquoP&rdquo denotes Polish territory, while &ldquoD&rdquo signifies German land.

Urban barriers. A street and rail tracks in interwar Beuthen (Bytom), a major industrial city of Upper Silesia whose eastern outskirts lay right near the border between Germany and Poland delimited in 1921. Beuthen, along with Katowice, Gliwice, Zabrze, and Sosnowiec, belonged to a major conurbation that formed the productive core of the powerful coal and steel industries in Upper Silesia. Most of these cities came under Polish control, but Beuthen remained part of Germany. After the Second World War, all of Upper Silesia was annexed to Poland as part of the border changes made by the Allies.

Medieval castles in Slovakia

Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.

Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 22 Jul 2010, 11:44

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 22 Jul 2010, 12:02

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Peter H » 22 Jul 2010, 12:05

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 22 Jul 2010, 12:18

Great Hungarian Hero Thökely Imre the King of Middle Hungary and Erdely(Transilvania)
The Great son of Hungary war also an Emre/Imre. We Turks have also the name Emre which means "Lover" His signature had the following verse:
"Muhibbi Al- i Osmanim, itaat uzereyim emre
Kral-i Orta Macarim, ki namim Tokeli Emre"

to English: The following verse is written in his seal/Tugra:
"I am a friend of Great Ottoman Family. I am at their service/order.
I am the King of Middle Hungary. I am called Tokeli Emre"

Sein Tugra/Unterschrift lautet zu deutsch:
"Ich bin ein Freund der Grosse Osmanische Familie, ich bin unter Ihren Befehl.
Ich bin der Koenig von Mitteren Ungarn, Ich heisse Toekeli Emre"

Fuelek Castle : Beginning of the End

The Fulek Castle is located between Hungarian- Slovakian border where Nógrád and Gömör Rivers meet. “Fülek” means “a hiding place” or “a fortification” which was derived from Celtic word “Fulaku”. During Ottoman administration, this fort was accepted as a bit problematic due to its Catholic Hungarian and German settlers.

The Fulek Castle is a rarely known place despite its importance on Turkish history. It was governed by several administrations. Finally, it was re-conquered by Imre Tökeli, the Protestant Hungarian King who was appreciated by the Turkish authorities of the era, in September 10, 1682. By the conquest of the Fulek Castle, Imre was appointed as the Hungarian King by the Pasha of Budin.
We can consider this date as the beginning of the end of Ottoman Turkish Empire. Beginning of all defeats and reteads until August 22nd 1922. As it is commanly known in the next year in 1683 Turks were defeated infront of Vienna and lost all Hungary and Beograd.
The Turkish traveller and historian Evliya Celebi gives very good informaton about Fuelek in his book "Seyahatname" (Travels) vol.11 p.32 He says that Fuelek had 3oo woodens houses in the castle and 700 dwellings at its varos.
Turkish historian Pecevi wrotes a very interesting story how Turks conquered Fuelek. One night a soldier called Hasan climbs to the wall of the castle by means of a ledder and pushes back the artillary gun on a window with his forehead and jumps inside the castle. He then opens the main door.

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Fliegende Untertasse » 22 Jul 2010, 18:14

Hungarian immediate language family is Ugric and certainly not Turkic.

And just for the record :
"Ural Altay" was just work hypothesis that Matias Castrén , the founder of Fenno-ugristics and one of the pioneers of comparative linguistics , used during his 1845-49 Siberian expedition . He never managed to find any real evidence to support this pet theory of his. The concept and further study of "Ural-Altaic" was largely abandoned by historical linguistic community after Castréns death in 1852.

Various factions with political or national-romantic motives were trying to keep "Ural-Altaic"(a.k.a. "turanian" ) approach alive though. But did it play any relevant role in late Ottoman politics ?

There have been Hungarian national-romantics who support idea of Turkish-Hungarian relationship, but these individuals usually deny the Fenno-ugrian connection. They don't really like the idea of "fish smelling hillbillies" as their relatives.

And there is no popular legend or tradition of "old turkic folk" among Fennic peoples, not in Finland at least
( "Connection with those lowly Mongols" has been a polpular anecdote since it was made up in 1840's , but Turks are ignored here ) - not that it probably matters in this historical context.

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 24 Jul 2010, 10:11

Mate, I assume that you are Finnish? Now ı am having my sommer holidays in Turkish Med coast in Alanya. as soon as I return to Ankara ı will answer you. But first ı want to give you two little sentences pure Turkish as the back of my right hand.
"a zsebemben sok alma van"

Turkish.(Cebimde çok elma var)

which means in English "I have manyy apples in my pocket"
(çebimde manny elma there are)

Recenty I was invited to a reception at the Austrian Embassy in Ankara where I met a very old college of mine the old Turkish Consil to Finland. He told me another sentence in Finnish that I already swollowed my tonque. I knew that Finns were also a Turkic tribe but I didnt had the change to search the similarities.

(Minun unaohtamaton nukku sinun olkoon"
In Turkish:
"Benim unutulmayan uykum senin olsun"

German(Mein unvergessbarer Traum Dein sein)

English: (My not forgettable dream be yours"
Tosun Saral
Turkish Hungarian Friendship Society in Ankara,

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 24 Jul 2010, 11:07

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 24 Jul 2010, 11:31

Serdar-ı Ekrem (commander-in-chief of the Sultan) Ömer Lütfü Paşa whose birth name was Mihajlo Latas (Serbian: Михајло Латас). He is also known as Michael Latas, Michael Lats and Michael Lattus. Famous nobel price winner Ivo Andric says that he was a serbian. some say that croatian and some say croatian- hungarian.
Never mind he was a great Turk.[*]

[*] "Turk is not the name of a nation but the name of a union of great men" A quatation of Mustafa kemal Atatürk

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 24 Jul 2010, 11:42

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 24 Jul 2010, 13:32

Sure they did. ı will post later when ı return to Ankara

An unknown Hungarian officer during WW1. He fought with the Turks during WW1. Later in 1922 he was transferred to Turkey again. I found his diary at a old- books-shop and buyed for my collection.

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 24 Jul 2010, 13:44

Odön Edmund Szeckenyi Paşa

Türkiye'de modern manada itfaiye teşkilatını kuran Macar asıllı devlet adamımız.

According to an invitation of Sultan Abdülaziz In 1872 Hungarian Count/Graf Odön/Edmund Szeckenyi who received in London fire education come to Istanbul and was made President of Ottoman Imperial Fire Department. Count Szeckenyi was President of Hungarian Fire department. He established 4 fire battalions and returned to Hungary. During the rule of Sultan Abdülhamid the II he was invited again to Istanbul and made Pasha. He remained until 1922 in Istanbul as President of the Fire department.

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by JTV » 29 Jul 2010, 07:58

Tosun Saral wrote: which means in English "I have manyy apples in my pocket"
(çebimde manny elma there are)

Recenty I was invited to a reception at the Austrian Embassy in Ankara where I met a very old college of mine the old Turkish Consil to Finland. He told me another sentence in Finnish that I already swollowed my tonque. I knew that Finns were also a Turkic tribe but I didnt had the change to search the similarities.

(Minun unaohtamaton nukku sinun olkoon"
In Turkish:
"Benim unutulmayan uykum senin olsun"

German(Mein unvergessbarer Traum Dein sein)

This might be off-topic for this subject, but Fliegende Untertasse is right - according modern science Finnish and Turkish languages have no relation. Also don't mix language groups with genetic background - often the two are are not the same thing (*).

I have many apples in my pocket = (in Finnish) Minulla on paljon omenia taskussani

I guess you got "Minun unaohtamaton nukku sinun olkoon" from some very poor translation application, since it has so many errors, that it is not even really Finnish. Try "Unohtumaton uneni olkoon sinun" ("My unforgotable dream shall be yours").

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Tosun Saral » 06 Jan 2011, 01:36

Macarlı Dr. Miralay Abdullah Bey
Karl Eduard Hammerschmidt

(1800, Vienna - 30 August 1874, Anatolia) was an Austrian mineralogist, entomologist and physician.

Hammerschmidt studied the law, but could not become an advocate. Instead, already an editor of Landwirtschaftlichen Zeitung, an agricultural newspaper, and an entomologist, he became a student of medical writing.

After the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 he had to flee, joined the Hungarian army and fought under the Polish general Józef Bem. Wounded and with many suffering comrades he was pushed over the Turkish border. He became a teacher at the medical school in Constantinople, but after complaints from Austria was displaced. He then moved to Damascus where he worked for several years as a hospital physician, served as a physician in the Crimean War, was during the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 a Turkish commissioner.

After 1873, he became a teacher of mineralogy and Zoology at the medical school in Constantinople, for which he created a natural history museum. Hammerschmidt was a member of the Royal Entomological Society of London. As well as zoological and geological text books in the Turkish language he made valuable contributions to the geological and zoological knowledge of the Bosphorus areas. He was joint founder of the Turkish Red Crescent.

We know him as Hungarian Abdullah Bey
May his place in light.

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Osman Levent » 07 Jan 2011, 02:29

Re: Hungarians at Ottoman service

Post by Dr Eisvogel » 16 Feb 2011, 19:44

His birthplace Jesenica near Plaški is located in the Republic of Croatia - Karlovac County. Mihajlo Latas was born in an Orthodox Christian family, so he is ethnically a Serb.

Filakovo Castle

Filakovo Castle was a medieval castle whose ruins are overlooking the town Fiľakovo. The first written mention of the castle is from 1242, where it says that the castle resisted Tartar invasions. It has several owners, including Matthew III Csák.

In the 12th century, the original castle consists of square tower, perimeter wall with the palace on the southwest side and probably mound with palisades. During the reconstruction in 1551 the castle was expanded to the middle castle with a pair of massive pentagonal bastions. Lower Castle was provided by three polygonal bastions, and two tower gates with drawbridge and moat 10 meters deep. The reconstruction included also building a massive city walls with gates and rounded ditched.

From the town fortification it has been preserved only bastion. Lower Castle was absorbed by the town, only part of the courtyard was preserved. The castle burned down in 1682 during the siege and since then it has been in ruins.

Mysterious Fiľakovo Castle underground lured more than thousand visitors

Under this historical construction, attractive exhibition site will be created soon. Pod historickou stavbou čoskoro vznikne atraktívne výstavné miesto.

New Year’s Day ascent to the Fiľakovo Castle, including a visit to the underground rooms, attracted a thousand. (Source: TASR)

Against original expectations – of around 120 people – more than a thousand visitors arrived to the Fiľakovo Castle on Epiphany – January 6, 2018, all with torches, headlamps or lighted mobile phones.

For the very first time, the castle museum opened for the public the underground spaces under Fiľakovo Castle which were thought to be wine cellars or stores in the past. However, this is far from being true, My Novohrad regional newspaper wrote.

Originally, only a New Year’s Day ascent to the castle was planned. “A few days ago, we published a photo of these rooms,” Marian Mesiarik of the Castle Museum in Fiľakovo, who initiated the event, said as quoted by the regional newspaper. “We lit candles in them which made a truly mysterious impression.”

Where there are hills, there are people who will climb them, Mesiarik noted, adding that as they have a castle, they decided to organise a climb to the castle.

“I had the idea of showing these spaces to the public, within the ascent to the castle,” he explained. “I supposed that there will gather around 30 of us for the ascent itself. The underground may be interesting for about a hundred people…. Thus, such a massive attendance was a positive surprise for me,” he summed up.

What was the real purpose of Fiľakovo underground

The underground spaces which served as a shelter from air raids in World War II shall be used meaningfully by the Castle Museum. Already in May, visitors of the traditional Night of Museums will be able to see interesting expositions.

“It is a classical construction of anti-aircraft galleries,” the organiser said. “Three times bent, with a longer tunnel. The German army tunneled it through mining,” he noted, and commemorated a law from back 1943 which ordered air-raid shelters in buildings. He also said that they needed neither concrete, nor iron – a solid surface was enough. “In Fiľakovo, the rock under the castle was ideal,” he added.

Czech experts point out that the shelter was never finished, as it lacks an entrance on the other side. The museum employees keep researching the history of the construction, Mesiarik said. One gallery is 65 metres long, the other mere 25 both are around two metres tall and wide.

The rooms, walled-in until recently, are subject to big plans of the Castle Museum: “In the longer gallery, an exposition focused on WWII in Fiľakovo will be installed, the organiser explained, adding that it will portray the period between 1938, when the Hungarian army invaded the region, and 1945, when the town was liberated.

Plans for the upcoming year

At the end of 2017, head of the Castle Museum, Viktória Tittonová, announced, as cited by the regional newspaper, that a lapidary should be located in one of the underground galleries, with various stones from around Fiľakovo, some from the vanished church in Radzovce, and others from the gothic parts of the rib-vaulting of the Holiša church.

“We are preparing some surprises in the tower, too,” Tittonová told My Novohrad. “I do not want to specify as for now, but I believe that the Night of Museums, which will take place in the second half of May, will be the event of the year for us.”

Fil’akovo: Inspiration

Slovakia becomes more fascinating to me each and every day. Fil’akovo, a small city near the Hungarian border, encapsulates many people and many languages in one place, and these people have gradually shared their thoughts and values with me. Through class discussions, I’ve noticed in my students a general interest in world history and current events. Community members, too, demonstrate a keen interest in the rest of the world. While political opinions and personal values are sensitive topics, I feel that people are firm in their beliefs and are uniquely aware of why it is they’ve come to hold them.

In an effort to document these beliefs in a way that respects students’ and people’s privacy, I’d like to make a Humans-of-New-York-style Instagram that would be centered around things that the people of Fil’akovo consider important and relevant in this day and age. The material on the Instagram, of course, would only be posted with permission from the student or community member.

To make a long story short: the people of Fil’akovo fascinate me endlessly, and I want to share their faces and thoughts with you.

Museum of History of the village Divin - Zichy mansion

The Renaissance manor house, which stands under the castle hill, was built in 1670. Until 1945, it was owned by the Zichy family. After the war, the Forest Administration and JRD were based here. From 2011 to 2015, the manor underwent extensive reconstruction and currently houses the Museum of the History of the Village of Divín, which in its exhibitions offers visitors the history of the village, castle and manor as well as the natural beauty of Divín. The courtyard of the manor also offers a.


At the foot of Karancs mountain, in the Cserhát hills, 250 meters above sea level, 120 km (75 mi) north-east from Budapest, 70 km (43 mi) west from Miskolc. Salgótarján is surrounded by beautiful forests and hills topped with castle ruins, which are accessible by bus that may be taken from the center of town.

The town already existed in the Middle Ages, but information on it is scarce possibly because it was a small settlement. The word salgó means "shining" in Old Hungarian, while Tarján was the name of one of the Hungarian tribes conquering the area.

The castle of Salgó was built in the 13th century on a mountain of volcanic origin. In the 13th century the town already had a church.

After the 1682 siege of the nearby Castle of Fülek (today Fiľakovo, Slovakia) the town was deserted, and new settlers arrived only ten years later, but remained a small village.

Development came in the mid-19th century, when a coal mine was opened nearby. The job opportunities provided by the mine and the developing industry began to attract people. The village grew quickly and was granted town status in 1922. Today visitors can see the remains of the mining industry by visiting the Mine Museum, which is located next to the main entrance of the mine.

In 1950, Salgótarján became the capital of Nógrád county instead of the previous county seat Balassagyarmat, although the county offices did not move there until 1952. In the next twenty years several villages were annexed to the growing city.

The coal mines closed years ago, leaving the city with high unemployment rates.

In 1994, Salgótarján was granted the rank of city with county rights, in accord with a new law stating that all county seats are cities with county rights. (Previously only cities with a population over 50.000 were granted county rights, and Salgótarján was one of only two county seats that had smaller population than 50.000 the other was Szekszárd).

The town is near two ruined castles and contains two museums, among other places of interest.

Watch the video: Po stopách zámožných predkov - Hrad Fiľakovo